JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  April 2010

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION April 2010

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 25. April

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 25 Apr 2010 14:36:26 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (149 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (25. April) is the feast day of:

1)  Mark the Evangelist (d. ca. 64, supposedly).  The gospel that bears his name was already attributed to to M. early in the second century by Papias, who derived his information from John the Presbyter (Eusebius, _Historia ecclesiastica_, 3. 39. 15; cf. 2. 15).  Eusebius (_ibid_., 2. 16, 24) also knew a tradition, not vouched for by Clement of Alexandria, that M. founded the church of Alexandria in Egypt and was its first bishop.  Jerome (_De viris illustribus_, 8) says that M. died there.  Eusebius (_Historia ecclesiastica_, 2. 24) in saying that St. An(n)ianus became M.'s first successor in the Alexandrian see in the eighth year of Nero (63/64) gives an approximate date for M.'s death.  According to the legendary fourth- or fifth-century _Acts of Mark_  (_Martyrium Marci_), this occurred by martyrdom at Alexandria on a return visit two years after A. became M.'s successor there.

By the end of the fourth century M. had a tomb at Alexandria that was the object of pilgrimage.  By then too he had an important basilica at Constantinople, erected by Theodosius the Great.  The emperor Romanus I restored it in the first half of the tenth century.

In the late eighth century the Friulans Paul the Deacon and Paulinus of Aquileia gave voice to the belief that M. had been the apostle of the upper Adriatic.  In 829 the Venetian doge Giustiniano Particiaco left money in his will for the erection in his city a church to house M.'s remains (apparently not including M.'s head, believed in Alexandria to have been found in the seventh century by the Coptic pope St. Benjamin I and which Alexandrians claim still to have).  The narrative portion of the tenth-century Translation of St. Mark to Venice (BHL 5284) provides a nicely detailed story of how those remains got there from Alexandria.  That early church (consecrated in 832) is long gone.  Its late eleventh-century replacement was in the thirteenth century adorned with spolia from Constantinople, including perhaps pieces from M.'s Theodosian basilica there.

A few views of full-page depictions of M. from various gospel books:
a)  Rossano Gospels (Byzantine; sixth-century; also known as the Codex Purpureus of Rossano), Rossano (CS), diocesan museum (this is said to be the oldest surviving portrait of an evangelist in the history of manuscript illumination):
http://tinyurl.com/3yd86d
b)  Lindisfarne Gospels (Northumbria, late seventh- or early eighth-century), London, BL, Cotton MS Nero D. IV, fol. 93b:
http://www.katapi.org.uk/BibleMSS/LindisfarneMk.htm
c)  Lichfield Gospels (Gospels of St Chad; eighth-century), Lichfield, cathedral library:
http://tinyurl.com/2npljz
d)  Blois Gospels (earlier ninth-century), Paris, BnF, ms. Latin, fol. 73v:
http://tinyurl.com/25c27v5
e)  Soissons Gospels (earlier ninth-century), Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 8850, fol. 81v:
http://tinyurl.com/265r8s
http://tinyurl.com/2s4nqp
f)  Lothar Gospels (mid-ninth-century), Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 266, fol. 75v:
http://tinyurl.com/26448zm
g)  Landévennec Gospels (Brittany; ninth-century), Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Auct. D. 2. 16, fol. 71v:
http://tinyurl.com/3bqpjo
h)  Trebizond Gospels (Armenian; eleventh-century), Venice, San Lazzaro, Mekhitarist Library, MS 1400/108:
http://tinyurl.com/6ccxwz
i)  A Greek-language gospels from Constantinople (eleventh- or twelfth-century), Paris, BnF, ms. Coislin 20, fol. 151v:
http://tinyurl.com/2f3q792
j)  A Greek-language gospels from Sicily or mainland southern Italy (twelfth-century), Glasgow University Library, MS Hunter 475 (V.7.2), fol. 110v:
http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/apr2006.html
k)  A Greek-language gospels from Constantinople (thirteenth-century), Paris, BnF, ms. Grec 54, fol. 111r:
http://tinyurl.com/2dtro4t

Venice, basilica di San Marco:
Exterior:
http://tinyurl.com/ypvakl
http://tinyurl.com/2gr4cf
http://tinyurl.com/yqb2t7
Interior:
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=20210&rendTypeId=4
http://tinyurl.com/25r7zh
http://tinyurl.com/ddtv8l
http://tinyurl.com/2bbjzf
http://tinyurl.com/6dmoey
http://www.flickr.com/photos/27650643@N02/3335535880/sizes/l/

Some exterior views of the apses of originally eleventh-century chiesa di San Marco at Rossano (CS) in Calabria before their recent "restoration":
http://tinyurl.com/27xs5qs
http://tinyurl.com/262mlay
http://tinyurl.com/2bl53rr
After "restoration":
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/14506251.jpg
http://www.italie1.com/popup.php?iddocument=6736
A recent interior view of the central apse:
http://tinyurl.com/286n6b8
An illustrated, Italian-language page on this church:
http://www.calabriatours.org/chiese/san_marco_rossano.htm
An illustrated, not exactly favorable Italian-language evaluation of the "restoration":
http://www.agoramagazine.it/agora/spip.php?article1244

M. as depicted in the mid-eleventh-century mosaics of the Nea Moni on Chios:
http://tinyurl.com/2dyb78m
http://tinyurl.com/22ruk3c

M. as depicted in the mid-eleventh-century mosaics of the cathedral of St. Sophia in Kyiv (Kiev):
http://www.icon-art.info/masterpiece.php?lng=en&mst_id=982

M. in a relief on the early thirteenth-century north portal of the abbey church of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire (Loiret):
http://tinyurl.com/2eezbhk

M. as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (ca. 1317-1324) of the church of St. Demetrius in the Patriarchate of Peć at Peć in, depending on one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
http://tinyurl.com/293v22f
http://tinyurl.com/2dqevax

M. as depicted in a later fourteenth-century window (ca. 1380) from the cathedral of Erfurt, now in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich:
http://tinyurl.com/2dkwy8k

The modern copy of Donatello's statue of M. (1411-1413) for the church of Orsanmichele in Florence on display in the appropriate niche:
http://tinyurl.com/2dywee
http://tinyurl.com/yrjtam
http://tinyurl.com/26p2ub

M. as depicted by Beato Angelico in the Museo Nazionale di San Marco in Florence:
The Martyrdom of St. Mark (ca. 1433):
http://tinyurl.com/28rn6a
Detail (St. Mark), Crucifixion and Saints (ca. 1441-42):
http://tinyurl.com/yop6jy
Same, entire composition:
http://tinyurl.com/23ud5n

M. enthroned as depicted by Bartolomeo Vivarini in an altarpiece from 1476 in the basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice:
http://tinyurl.com/2eznmrm


2)  An(n)ianus (d. 1st. cent., supposedly).  A. is the fairly legendary first bishop of Alexandria after St. Mark, whom, according to Eusebius (see above), he succeeded in 63 or 64.  The _Acts of Mark_ (_Martyrium Marci_) relate how M., freshly arrived at Alexandria, took to the cobbler A. his sandal whose strap had just broken.  During the repair, A. accidentally injured his hand with an awl.  M. caused the wound to heal forthwith, whereupon A. gave M. the hospitality of his own home.  From there M. preached the gospel in Alexandria and there he converted A. and his family along with many others.  Still according to this account, M. later decided to move on to the Libyan Pentapolis but before he left Alexandria he established A. as its bishop.

A smallish view of a relief (1478) by Pietro Lombardo, in the portal lunette of Venice's church of San Tomà (the cobblers' church), of M. healing A.:
http://tinyurl.com/2w6hor

A view of a relief (ca. 1481) by Tullio Lombardo, in Venice's church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo (San Zanipolo), of M. baptizing A.:
http://www.wga.hu/art/l/lombardo/tullio/mocenig2.jpg


3)  Phoebadius of Agen (d. prob. after 391).  The anti-Arian writer P. (also Foebadius, Febadius, etc.; in French, Phébade and Phébadius) is the first attested bishop of today's Agen (Lot-et-Garonne).  As he is not among the subscribers of the acts of the Council of Serdica/Sardica (342-343), his elevation is presumed to have occurred between then and 357/58, the year in which he seem to have written his surviving treatise _Contra Arianos_.  P. was a major figure at the synod of Rimini in 359.  He is also recorded among the participants in the synods of Valence in 374 and Zaragoza in 380 and, treated as an author who is still living, is the subject of chapter 108 of St. Jerome's _De viris illustribus_, written in 392-393.

Since 1112 remains believed to be those of P. have reposed at the originally eleventh-, but mostly thirteenth-/fourteenth-, century église Saint Pierre (et Saint Phébade) in Venerque (Haute-Garonne):
http://tinyurl.com/2eatykk
http://tinyurl.com/27luw9r
http://tinyurl.com/2ccwuzm
http://tinyurl.com/36zb9sl
An illustrated, French-language account of P.'s thirteenth-century reliquary châsse in that church:
http://tinyurl.com/2brj6jc
NB: There are three sets of images.  Keep clicking on "Voir la suite des images".


4)  Clarentius (d. early 7th cent.).  We know from the _Chronicon_ of St. Ado of Vienne that in A.'s time C. was thought to have been that city's twenty-ninth bishop.  His successor, St. Sindulfus of Vienne, is recorded as having been present at a council in 626.  Ado's martyrology enters C. under today's date.  For reasons that are not clear, cardinal Baronio in entering him in the RM moved his commemoration to 26. April.  Today's RM (2001, rev. 2004) restores the commemoration to the earlier date.


5)  Ermin of Lobbes (d. 737).  We know about E. (Erminus, Erminius, Ermenus, etc.) from his late tenth-century Vita formerly ascribed to his immediate successor Anso of Lobbes (BHL 2614 and 2614a) as well as from matter in the also late tenth-century _Gesta abbatum Lobiensium_ of Folcuin of Lobbes (Folcuin of Saint-Bertin).  According to these accounts, he was abbot-bishop St. Ursmar's chosen succesor, being consecrated bishop (an office that both permitted Lobbes to conduct missions and that reduced external interference) in 711 and installed as abbot following U.'s death in 718.  E. was noted for his extensive missionary activities and for numerous miracles.  Today is his _dies natalis_.

The sole architectural survivor of the abbey at Lobbes in what is now Belgian Hainaut is its much rebuilt but originally ninth-century église collégiale Saint-Ursmer (also Saint-Ursmarus; parts of the crypt are said to be older; the tower is eleventh-century).  Herewith a single view, and two sets of expandable views:
http://tinyurl.com/38pll4
http://tinyurl.com/y2k23dm
http://tinyurl.com/y2jlt3k


6)  Franca of Piacenza (d. 1218).  We know about the Benedictine abbess and Cistercian founding abbess F. (also Francesca [da] Vitalta, after the comital family to which she is said to have belonged) from a brief, allegedly shortly post-mortem account by a prior Lanfranc of the Cistercian house of Santa Maria di Ponte Trebbia (a.k.a. Santa Maria di Quartazzo) and from an earlier thirteenth-century Vita by a Cistercian priest from Milan, Bertramus Reoldus, deriving from information he learned while in exile in Piacenza (BHL 3092 and 3093, respectively).  The first of these, in a report of two visions received by Cistercian from Ponte Trebbia's mother house of Chiaravallle della Colomba, tells us that F. had entered a monastery at Piacenza, that from there she had founded a new house which after a false start elsewhere was established in the wilderness at a place called Locus sanctus, and that on her death she had been received as a saint in Heaven.

Lanfranc adds that the pope had decreed that F. be honored as a saint on earth.  Father Bertramus' account tells us additionally that F. belonged to the aforementioned comital house, that she had been oblated at the age of seven in the Benedictine monastery of St. Syrus in Piacenza, that she there became abbess but provoked dissent through attempts to enforce stricter observance of the Rule, that she became a Cistercian at Rapallo and together with another noble (Carenzia Visconti) founded her Cistercian house of Locus sanctus, that she was famous for miracles (many of which are described), that after her death her body was translated twice, winding up in Piacenza, and that other Cistercian houses descended from hers.

Bertramus' Vita would appear to have been destined for a canonization campaign.  In Piacenza, the tradition was that F.'s cult had been confirmed by Gregory X (said to have been a relative of the aforementioned Carenzia Visconti, who succeeded F. as abbess of Locus sanctus).  In the mid-sixteenth century F. became the titular of a new church in Piacenza; in the early seventeenth century Paul V recognized her cult for the diocese of Piacenza at the level of Saint, the title she also bears in the RM.     

Best,
John Dillon
(last year's post revised and with the addition of Phoebadius of Agen)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JISCMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


WWW.JISCMAIL.AC.UK

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager