medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Like his brother Simon Peter, Andrew was a disciple of St. John the Forerunner before becoming an adherent of Jesus of Nazareth. According to Eusebius, he preached in Scythia, by which latter quite possibly is meant the Roman province of this name erected by Diocletian in today's southeastern Romania and northeastern Bulgaria (Ukrainians and Russians think otherwise, of course). Theodoret has Andrew preaching in Greece. From at least the fourth century onward it has been believed that he suffered martyrdom at Patras.

In 357 relics venerated as Andrew's were brought from Patras to Constantinople's church of the Holy Apostles. Scots believe that in the eighth century their St. Regulus (Rule) brought the apostle's relics from Constantinople to today's St Andrews in Fife. Two illustrated pages on the St Rule Tower and the ruins of St Andrews cathedral at St Andrews are here:

But all in Campania know that in 1208 Andrew's remains were brought from Constantinople to Amalfi, where they are now housed in the cathedral dedicated to him. Matthew of Amalfi's account of this translation, as published by the comte de Riant in its later thirteenth-century revised version, repays reading (this will be found in vol. 1 of succeeding versions of Riant's _Exuviae sacrae Constantinopolitanae_ [1876; 1877-78]).

Of course, neither Matthew nor his reviser had any idea that in the 1460s the Despot of Morea, Thomas Palaeologus, would bring with him into exile in Italy a head said to be that of St. Andrew, that Pius II would acquire it for the Roman church and -- seizing upon this capital opportunity -- use it as a propaganda device for his projected crusade against the Turks, that in this context Cardinal Bessarion would give a welcoming speech to Andrew in the apostle's partial presence in 1462 (a heady moment, no doubt), and that in 1964 Paul VI would "return" this relic plus a finger bone from Andrew's relics in Amalfi to the Greek Orthodox church in Patras.  Herewith a few visuals:
1) The opening page of Pius II's account of Andrew's reception in Italy (with an illuminated initial showing Pius holding a bust of the saint) as transmitted in a contemporary (1463-1464) collection of writings by this pontiff (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 5565 A, fol. 1r):
2) Two views of Andrew's skull reliquary in Patras:

Still, the Roman Catholic Church has an upper part of a skull among Andrew's putative relics at Amalfi (perhaps the head now in Patras was only one of his spares). Herewith some views of it taken when it was on display at Sant'Andrea della Valle in Rome in 2008 for the 800th anniversary of Andrew's translation to Amalfi:

Andrew's right foot is said to be in the monastery of Agios Andreas on Kefalonia. Other relics believed to be his are in the skete of St. Andrew on Mt. Athos, a Russian foundation honoring one of that country's patron saints. Here's a view of a reliquary belonging to that monastery and said to contain Andrew's skull:
Andrew the Polycephalous, perhaps.
The Vatopedi monastery on Mt. Athos has what is described as a relic of Andre's right hand:

The cathedral of Trier has a later tenth-century portable altar (ca. 980) made for and containing what is said to be the sole of one of Andrew's sandals:

From at least 1250 until 1979, when they were transferred to Andrew's church at Patras, wood fragments believed to be relics of his cross were preserved in the church of St. Victor at Marseille. Herewith some views of them on display in St. Petersburg during a tour in 2013 in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus:

By way of supplement to Gordon Plumb's links earlier today to medieval images of St. Andrew in glass, herewith some links to other period-pertinent images of this saint:

a) as depicted (bottom, to St. Peter's left) in the later fifth-century mosaic ceiling (betw. 451 and 475) of the Neonian Baptistery / Orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna (for best results, click to expand the image):

b) as depicted (at top in right margin; below: St. Matthew, then St. Paul) among the roundels of apostles framing the Theotokos and Christ Child in a sixth-century tapestry icon from Egypt in the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland (OH):
Detail view:

c) as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (betw. 527 and 548) on the triumphal arch of Ravenna's basilica di San Vitale (photograph courtesy of Genevra Kornbluth):

d) as depicted in an early eighth-century fresco (betw. 705 and 707) in Rome's chiesa di Santa Maria Antiqua (grayscale view):

e) as depicted (martyrdom) in an illuminated initial in the mid-ninth-century Drogo Sacramentary (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 9428, fol. 98v):

f) as portrayed (at far right) on a later tenth-century ivory reliquary casket, probably from Constantinople, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (click on the image to enlarge):

g) as depicted (three images) in the eleventh-century frescoes of the chiesa collegiata di San Orso in Aosta:

h) as depicted in an early eleventh-century sacramentary at Rouen (ca. 1020; Rouen, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 274, fol. 164v):

i) as depicted in the earlier eleventh-century mosaics (restored between 1953 and 1962) in the narthex of the church of the Theotokos in the monastery of Hosios Loukas near Distomo in Phokis:

j) as depicted (martyrdom) in a later eleventh-century Office lectionary for the cathedral of Reims (before 1096; Reims, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 295, fol. 215r):

k) as portrayed in a mid- or later twelfth-century statue (probably later 1140s; _aliter_, 1170s; from the destroyed tomb of St. Lazarus in the latter's collegiate church in Autun) in the Musée Rolin in Autun:

l) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Peter) as depicted  in the mid-twelfth-century mosaics (betw. 1146 and 1151) of the chiesa di Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (a.k.a. chiesa della Martorana) in Palermo:

m) as portrayed in a later twelfth-century relief fragment (ca. 1150-1170) of Catalan origin in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri:

n) as portrayed (second from left) by Gruamonte (attrib.) in the later twelfth-century relief of Jesus and the Apostles (ca. 1167) over the main entrance to Pistoia's chiesa di San Bartolomeo in Pantano:

o) as portrayed in high relief (fourth from right; betw. Sts. Peter and James) by Anselmo da Campione in his Last Supper panel on the later twelfth-century parapet (_pontile_; ca. 1170-1180) in the cattedrale di San Geminiano in Modena:

p) as portrayed in high relief (at right; at left, St. Paul) on the late twelfth-century portal (betw. 1180 and 1190) of the basilique primatiale Saint-Trophime in Arles:

q) as depicted (at left in panel at upper right) in the late twelfth- or very early thirteenth-century wooden altar frontal of Baltarga in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona: 

r) as depicted (at right, upper register) in the very late twelfth- or very early thirteenth-century apse mosaic in Rome's basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura:

s) as depicted (martyrdom) in an earlier thirteenth-century psalter from Hildesheim (ca. 1230-1240; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition latine 3102, fol. 6v):

t) as depicted on an earlier thirteenth-century map of the Mediterranean (ca. 1234-1266; Lyon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 175, sheet 9):

u) as depicted (at left; at right, St. John the Evangelist) in the mid-thirteenth-century Carrow Psalter (Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, ms. W.34, fol. 11v):

v) as depicted (at far left; the Calling of Peter and Andrew) in a later thirteenth-century Gospels for the Use of Cambrai (ca; 1266; Cambrai, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 189, fol. 170r):

w) as depicted (martyrdom) in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the _Legenda aurea_ (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 1r):

x) as depicted in a late thirteenth-century Book of Hours for the Use of Thérouanne (ca. 1280-1290; Marseille, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 111, fol. 63v):

y) as depicted (martyrdom) in the late thirteenth-century Livre d'images de Madame Marie (ca. 1285-1290; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 16251, fol. 65v):

z) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Peter) by Duccio di Buoninsegna in an early fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1308-1311) in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC:

aa) as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. ca. 1313 and 1320) by Michael Astrapas and Eutychios in the King's Church (dedicated to Sts. Joachim and Anne) at the Studenica monastery near Kraljevo (Raška dist.) in Serbia:

bb) A. as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1326) by Simone Martini in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:

cc) as depicted (martyrdom) in an earlier fourteenth-century French-language legendary of Parisian origin with illuminations attributed to the Fauvel Master (ca. 1327; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 24r):

dd) as depicted (martyrdom) in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. 1335 and 1350) in the narthex of the church of the Holy Ascension at the Visoki Dečani monastery near Peć in, depending upon one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:

ee) as depicted (martyrdom) in an earlier fourteenth-century copy, from the workshop of Richard and Jeanne de Montbaston, of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1348; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 241, fol. 36v):

ff) as depicted in the later fourteenth-century frescoes (1360s and 1370s; restored in 1968-1970) in the church of St. Demetrius in Marko's Monastery at Markova Sušica (near Skopje) in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:

gg) as depicted (upper register at right) by Taddeo di Bartolo in a late fourteenth-century panel painting (1395) in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest:

hh) as depicted in a late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century copy of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Rennes, Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, ms. 266, fol. 9r):

ii) as depicted by Andrei Rublev in an early fifteenth-century panel painting (1408; for the Assumption cathedral in Vladimir) in the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow:

jj) as depicted (betw. St. Peter and St. James the Great) on the fifteenth-century rood screen in Gooderstone Church, Gooderstone (Norfolk):

kk) as depicted (martyrdom) by Jean Fouquet on a leaf of his now dismembered mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Étienne Chevalier (1450s; this leaf in the Musée Condé, Chantilly [Oise]):

ll) as depicted in grisaille (martyrdom) by Jean le Tavernier in the mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Philip of Burgundy (ca. 1451-1460; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 2, fol. 249r):

mm) as depicted (martyrdom) by Carlo Bracceso in a late fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1490) in the Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro, Venice:

nn) as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger in an earlier sixteenth-century pen-and-ink design for a stained glass window (ca. 1519-1521) in the Kunstmuseum Basel:

John Dillon

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