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BIBLIOGRAPHIES :

 

HOW TO :

 

RESEARCH :

 

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WRITING AND WRITERS: WRITING SKILLS:

 

How to Produce a Systematic Review or a Meta Analysis

 

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How to Produce a Systematic Review or a Meta Analysis

 

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Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: A Step-By-Step Guide

 

Centre for Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Epidemology

 

http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/research/software-resources/systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses

 

“A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarising all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria.

 

A meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarise the results of these studies.”

 

Step 1: Why do a systematic review? 

http://tinyurl.com/lq7c45f

 

Step 2: Who will be involved?

http://tinyurl.com/kjy2skx

 

Step 3: Formulate the problem. Has it been done before?

Registering your review.

http://tinyurl.com/n5sj4oj

 

Step 4: Perform your search.

http://tinyurl.com/ngxmm52

 

Step 5: Data extraction.

http://tinyurl.com/ma2og79

 

Step 6: Critical appraisal of studies (quality assessment).

http://tinyurl.com/ld5wlff

 

Step 7 Data synthesis.

http://tinyurl.com/lqruh3u

 

Step 8: Presenting results (writing the report).

http://tinyurl.com/pbs5jq8

 

Step 9: Archiving and updating.

http://tinyurl.com/kvkstqx

 

Useful Resourses: 

http://tinyurl.com/oq5x7p3

 

Useful Lectures:

 

Lecture 1: Introduction to systematic reviews 

http://tinyurl.com/ohf2u9p

 

Lecture 2: Systematic literature searching

http://tinyurl.com/pyuj2sh

 

Lecture 3: Systematic review hints and tips

http://tinyurl.com/nz23go4

 

Lecture 3: Introduction to meta-analysis

http://tinyurl.com/popq28c

 

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Meta-analysis

From Wikipedia

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta-analysis

 

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“In statistics, meta-analysis comprises statistical methods for contrasting and combining results from different studies in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies.[1] Meta-analysis can be thought of as "conducting research about previous research." In its simplest form, meta-analysis is done by identifying a common statistical measure that is shared between studies, such as effect size or p-value, and calculating a weighted average of that common measure. This weighting is usually related to the sample sizes of the individual studies, although it can also include other factors, such as study quality.

 

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The motivation of a meta-analysis is to aggregate information in order to achieve a higher statistical power for the measure of interest, as opposed to a less precise measure derived from a single study. In performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices many of which can affect its results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias. [2]

 

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Meta-analyses are often, but not always, important components of a systematic review procedure. For instance, a meta-analysis may be conducted on several clinical trials of a medical treatment, in an effort to obtain a better understanding of how well the treatment works. Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration,[3] and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews.”

 

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Contents 

 

1 History

2 Advantages

3 Pitfalls

3.1 Publication bias: the file drawer problem

3.2 Agenda-driven bias

4 Steps in a meta-analysis

5 Methods and assumptions

5.1 Approaches

5.2 Statistical models

5.2.1 Fixed effects model

5.2.2 Random effects model

5.2.3 Quality effects model

5.2.4 IVhet model

6 Applications in modern science

7 See also

8 References

9 Further reading

10 External links

10.1 Software

 

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Systematic Review Methods

 

The Community Guide

 

http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/methods.html

 

“What is a systematic review?

A systematic review is a review of scientific studies on a specific topic. It uses a formal process to:

 

Identify all relevant studies

Assess their quality

Summarize the evidence

Why do a systematic review?

Systematic reviews help make sense of large bodies of scientific literature by applying the scientific process to:

 

Reduce bias in how conclusions are reached

Improve the power and precision of results

Summarize evidence about the effectiveness of particular approaches for addressing a public health problem

Analyze generalizability of findings

Identify knowledge gaps and need for additional research”

 

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Five steps to conducting a systematic review

Khalid S Khan, MB MSc, Regina Kunz, MD MSc,1 Jos Kleijnen, MD PhD,2

and Gerd Antes, PhD3

J R Soc Med. Mar 2003; 96(3): 118–121.

PMCID: PMC539417

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC539417/

 

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Report at a Glance

 

Standards for Systematic Reviews

 

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

 

http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Standards-for-Systematic-Reviews/Standards.aspx

 

OR

 

http://tinyurl.com/45flcu5

 

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Education And Debate

 

Meta-analysis: Principles and procedures

 

BMJ 1997; 315 doi:

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7121.1533

 

(Published 06 December 1997)

 

Cite this as: BMJ 1997;315:1533

 

http://www.bmj.com/content/315/7121/1533

 

Introduction

Observational study of evidence

Standardised outcome measure

Statistical methods for calculating overall effect

Bayesian meta-analysis

Heterogeneity between study results

Graphic display

Relative and absolute measures of effect

Sensitivity analysis

Conclusions

 

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About Cochrane Systematic Reviews And Protocols

 

http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/view/0/AboutCochraneSystematicReviews.html

 

“What is a systematic review?

 

A systematic review attempts to identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. Researchers conducting systematic reviews use explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias, in order to produce more reliable findings that can be used to inform decision making. (See Section 1.2 in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.)

 

What is a Cochrane Review?

 

Cochrane Reviews are systematic reviews of research in healthcare and health policy that are published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. There are three types of Cochrane Review:

 

1. Intervention reviews assess the benefits and harms of interventions used in healthcare and health policy.

 

2. Diagnostic test accuracy reviews assess how well a diagnostic test performs in diagnosing and detecting a particular disease.

 

3. Methodology reviews address issues relevant to how systematic reviews and clinical trials are conducted and reported.

 

Cochrane Reviews base their findings on the results of trials which meet certain quality criteria, since the most reliable studies will provide the best evidence for making decisions about health care.”

 

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Systematic review and meta-analysis methodology

 

Mark Crowther1, Wendy Lim2, and Mark A. Crowther2

 

Blood

 

http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/116/17/3140?sso-checked=true

 

“Abstract

 

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are being increasingly used to summarize medical literature and identify areas in which research is needed. Systematic reviews limit bias with the use of a reproducible scientific process to search the literature and evaluate the quality of the individual studies. If possible the results are statistically combined into a meta-analysis in which the data are weighted and pooled to produce an estimate of effect. This article aims to provide the reader with a practical overview of systematic review and meta-analysis methodology, with a focus on the process of performing a review and the related issues at each step.”

 

Introduction

The Clinical Question

Search Strategy

Electronic databases

Conference abstracts

Handsearching

Contacting investigators

Internet

Study Selection

Study design

Language

Date of publication

Duplicate data

Assessing The Quality Of Studies

Data Extraction

Combining The Data (Meta-Analysis)

Making Conclusions

Concluding Remarks

References

 

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The Process Writing Approach: A Meta-analysis

 

DOI:10.1080/00220671.2010.488703

 

Steve Grahama and Karin Sandmela

 

pages 396-407

 

Published online: 17 Oct 2011

 

The Journal of Educational Research

 

Volume 104, Issue 6, 2011

 

http://tinyurl.com/mo4ownp

 

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From the APA Science Student Council

 

Top Ten Tips for Graduate Students Who Want to Conduct a Meta-analysis

 

American Psychological Association

 

http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2008/04/ssc.aspx

 

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Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis 

 

Paul Bain

 

Harvard University Libraries

 

Countway Library of Medicine

 

http://guides.library.harvard.edu/meta-analysis

 

Guides and Standards

Databases and Sources

Methodology Filters Arrow

Software, Tools, and Organizations

Collaborations

 

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Research article

 

Meta-analysis: Neither quick nor easy

 

Nancy G Berman1* and Robert A Parker2

 

BMC Medical Research Methodology 2002, 2:10  doi:10.1186/1471-2288-2-10

 

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

 

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/2/10

 

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Systematic Reviews - King's College London

 

http://tinyurl.com/qhz48nq

 

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Introduction to Systematic Reviews

 

http://www.ebbp.org/course_outlines/systematic_review/

 

Table of Contents

 

Module A: Overview of Systematic Reviews

 

Module B: Evaluating Systematic Reviews

 

Module C: Steps for Conducting a Systematic Review

 

Step 1: Assembling the team

Step 2: Develop the protocol or work plan

Step 3: Question/topic refinement

Step 4: Systematic and comprehensive searches for evidence

Step 5: Inclusion/exclusion rules

Step 6: Critical appraisal of relevant literature

Step 7: Data abstraction

Step 8: Data Synthesis

Step 9: Communication of results

 

Authors:

Elizabeth O'Connor, Ph.D.

Evelyn Whitlock, M.D., M.P.H.

Bonnie Spring, Ph.D., ABPP

 

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The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration

Alessandro Liberati mail,

 

 Douglas G. Altman,

 

 Jennifer Tetzlaff,

 

 Cynthia Mulrow,

 

 Peter C. Gøtzsche,

 

 John P. A. Ioannidis,

 

 Mike Clarke,

 

 P. J. Devereaux,

 

Jos Kleijnen,

 

 David Moher

 

Published: July 21, 2009DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100

 

PLOS

 

http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000100

 

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Study Design 101

 

Meta-Analysis

 

George Washington University

 

https://himmelfarb.gwu.edu/tutorials/studydesign101/metaanalyses.html

 

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How to Read a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis and Apply the Results to Patient Care

 

Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature

 

Mohammad Hassan Murad, MD, MPH1; Victor M. Montori, MD, MSc2; John P. A. Ioannidis, MD, DSc3; Roman Jaeschke, MD, MSc4; P. J. Devereaux, MD, PhD5; Kameshwar Prasad, MD, DM, FRCPE6; Ignacio Neumann, MD, MSc7; Alonso Carrasco-Labra, DDS, MSc8; Thomas Agoritsas, MD9; Rose Hatala, MD, MSc10; Maureen O. Meade, MD11; Peter Wyer, MD12; Deborah J. Cook, MD, MSc13; Gordon Guyatt, MD, MSc14

 

JAMA. 2014;312(2):171-179. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5559.

 

July 9, 2014, Vol 312, No. 2

 

http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1886196

 

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Methods for Conducting Systematic Reviews - EPPI-Centre

 

http://tinyurl.com/n7ltqvh

 

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Meta-analysis

 

Psychwiki

 

http://www.psychwiki.com/wiki/Meta-analysis

 

Contents

 

1 Where should I start?

2 What is a meta-analysis?

2.1 Definition

2.2 Three Basic Questions

2.3 Five Basic Steps

3 How do I conduct a meta-analysis?

3.1 First, choose which statistical approach suits your needs

3.2 Second, choose which effect size index to calculate

3.3 Third, choose your statistical software

4 websites you may find interesting or helpful...

 

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Review Article

 

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically

 

Emily S Sena1,2, Gillian L Currie1, Sarah K McCann2, Malcolm R Macleod1 and David W Howells2

 

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2014) 34, 737–742;

 

doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.28; published online 19 February 2014

 

http://www.nature.com/jcbfm/journal/v34/n5/full/jcbfm201428a.html

 

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October – 2008

 

Meta-Analysis: The preferred method of choice for the assessment of distance learning quality factors

 

Mickey Shachar

 

TUI University

 

College of Health Sciences and College of Education

 

USA

 

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/493/1147

 

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Database Search Results Regarding How to do a Meta Analysis OR Systematic Review

 

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Temple University

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