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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Laura Jacobus" <[log in to unmask]>
To: "medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious 
culture" <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: 13 April 2009 18:03
Subject: Re: [M-R] burials in church (and in chapels of ease)


> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
>
> Very many thanks for all the replies so far, and do please keep them 
> coming! There's plenty to follow up already, but in answer to questions 
> which have been raised-
>
> In this case the Scrovegni held onto the ius patronatus (advowson?) 
> through several generations and hedged it about with various conditions to 
> stop it being sold, but it did eventually get sold anyway.  I seem to 
> recall that the sale had to be ratified by the bishop, as this was one of 
> the original conditions.  I've not come across anything stating that the 
> ius patronatus included the right to burial, and my guess is that it was 
> unconnected to this right by legal means- but from Jim's reply it may have 
> been connected by custom ie burial rights may have been one of the 
> unofficial perks of founding your own church.  I wish I knew the answer 
> with respect to chantries, but my sense is that Italian private chapels 
> within churches were pretty much the same thing.
>
> Getting back the the Scrovegnis, there is a theory that the church was 
> intended as the founder's 'mausoleum' but I find this hard to prove one 
> way or another as he was eventually buried in an apsidal chapel that was 
> added to the original church.  It's this that made me wonder whether he 
> needed permission, and whether that had been witheld at the time he built 
> the church but was later granted, necessitating the addition.  The 
> original permit to build is only known through hearsay, but it suggests 
> that he was given permission to build it as a convenient place of worship 
> for members of his household, nothing more.  This seems equivalent to an 
> English estate church or 'chapel of ease', and while I know their patrons 
> eventually got buried in them too, I wonder whether they needed 
> permission.
>
> All best
>
> Laura
> ----- Original Message ----- 
> From: "Thomas Izbicki" <[log in to unmask]>
> To: <[log in to unmask]>
> Sent: 13 April 2009 16:55
> Subject: [SPAM]Re: [M-R] burials in church
>
>
>> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
>>
>> Laura,
>> Jim's message just reminded me of two things:
>> - The ius patronatus of a chapel.  Did it include a right to burial? 
>> Could the right to a chapel be sold?
>> - Is there an Italian equivalent to the chantry?  The literature on 
>> English chantry chapels is interesting, but I am unsure how applicable it 
>> is to Italy.
>> Tom Izbicki
>>
>> jbugslag wrote:
>>> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and 
>>> culture
>>>
>>> Laura,
>>> I've been waiting for someone more learned on the matter than me to 
>>> weigh in on this, but my feeling is that, by 1300, burial in churches 
>>> was well on the way to becoming quite normal.  Before the 11th century, 
>>> burial usually took place in the churchyard, with the exception of "the 
>>> very special dead", the saints in other words, and with the equally 
>>> important exception of founders of churches and their families, which in 
>>> the time before the investiture controversy were very widespread. 
>>> Beginning in the 11th century, burials within churches began to 
>>> multiply.  From founders, heads of religious institutions began to 
>>> demand this right, and from there, the floodgates opened.  Before the 
>>> 13th century, church burial was still a highly prestigious privilege, 
>>> but even after it became quite common, most people would have still been 
>>> buried outside in the churchyard.  And initially, the cost of this 
>>> privilege was prohibitively high.  At Peterborough in England, for 
>>> example, Abbot Ernulf (1107-1114) made an agreement between his convent 
>>> and those knights who held abbey lands, that a knight should pay yearly 
>>> two parts of his tithes and at his death a third of his whole estate for 
>>> burial in the church.  As well, all his "knightly endowments", including 
>>> his horse and his arms were to be brought with his body to the funeral 
>>> ceremonies and offered up to St Peter, at which time the convent 
>>> received the corpse in procession and performed the Office of the Dead. 
>>> As burial in the church became more common, the cost was undoubtedly 
>>> made more reasonable.  By the later Middle Ages, it was undoubtedly 
>>> relatively inexpensive, yet other factors were then involved in church 
>>> burial.  Under normal circumstances, an individual was expected to be 
>>> buried at his parish church (whether inside or in the cemetery 
>>> surrounding it), but the appearance of the Mendicant orders changed that 
>>> situation dramatically.  More and more, mendicant churches began to 
>>> compete with parish churches for the burial of citizens, to the point 
>>> where they were widely criticized for it.  And the concept of an 
>>> Eigenkirche certainly did not go away.  Both monastic and collegiate 
>>> churches were founded in the later Middle Ages specifically as burial 
>>> churches, either for individuals or dynasties.  Concurrently, private 
>>> chapels within larger churches began to proliferate.  An indicative 
>>> "early" example is the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris; as built in the 
>>> late 12th and early 13th century, it was ringed with projecting 
>>> buttresses supporting the flyers above.  During the late 13th and early 
>>> 14th centuries, the aisle walls were progressively broken through, and 
>>> private chapels built between the buttresses, to the point where the 
>>> entire cathedral was ringed with private chapels.  In Italy, such 
>>> private chapels came to be designed from the beginning, as at S. Croce, 
>>> the Franciscan church in Florence.  Although I am not certain of the 
>>> legal basis for it, families could "buy" such chapels, although it was 
>>> not always the case that they accommodated burials.  A good source for 
>>> this phenomenon, from an architectural point of view, is H.M. Colvin's 
>>> Architecture and the Afterlife, but I can't remember whether he 
>>> addresses the institutional aspects of the phenomenon that you were 
>>> enquiring after.  Another source that might be useful is Philippe 
>>> Aries's encyclopedic The Hour of Our Death, which certainly treats this 
>>> phenomenon from many perspectives in considerable detail.  Erwin 
>>> Panofsky's book, Tomb Sculpture, may also be useful.  In relation to 
>>> your specific topic, it strikes me that the Scrovegni family was 
>>> essentially emulating noble practice in founding a family chapel that 
>>> would accommodate burial.  You might consider "parallel" cases such as 
>>> the Church of Notre-Dame at Ecouis, founded in the early 14th century by 
>>> Enguerrand de Marigny as a dynastic burial church (cf the book on this 
>>> by Dorothy Gillerman) or the monastery of Tewkesbury in England, 
>>> refurbished as a dynastic mausoleum in the early 14th century by the 
>>> Despenser family.  I hope your query provokes a response that addresses 
>>> legislation, because I am interested in it, too. Cheers,
>>> Jim Bugslag
>>>
>>> On 12 Apr 2009 at 14:10, Laura Jacobus wrote:
>>>
>>>
>>>> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and
>>>> culture
>>>>
>>>> Happy Easter and Passover to all.
>>>>
>>>> Can anyone tell me what regulations or customs existed regarding
>>>> burials in churches (thirteen and fourteenth century Italy being my
>>>> main concerns)?  I'm working on a private church (the Scrovegni Chapel
>>>> in Padua), and my sense is that c.1300 it was still quite rare for
>>>> lay-people to be buried in churches, though the practice was gaining
>>>> in popularity and Italian churches began to sprout private family
>>>> chapels for the purpose around this time.  I'd be particularly
>>>> interested to know whether private churches or family chapels within
>>>> churches might have needed a special license for burials, or whether
>>>> it was simply assumed that patrons had the right to be buried in them.
>>>>
>>>> All best
>>>>
>>>> Laura
>>>>
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