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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Colleagues,

To to anyone interested I will be happy to send a 
copy by regular mail of Richard McBrien's article 
that contends "we must reject the simplistic, 
mechanistic notion of apostolic succession -- the 
passing the baton theory." He cites Fr Francis 
Sullivan, former professor of ecclesiology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University and now professor 
at Boston College.

George Brown

>medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
>
>Tom,
>
>I'm well aware of the tradition that Peter was 
>the first pope of Rome from the "early" sources 
>cited; it's what we learned as seminarians. The 
>point that Fr. McBrien and his contemporary 
>authorities now make is that the tradition was 
>established in the late antique  period or early 
>Middle Ages, so what we learned in History of 
>the Church class needs to be revised a bit 
>because the earliest records (e.g. Acts) have 
>the apostles as missionaries and the churches 
>local chosen leaders.  The Apostolic Tradition 
>therefore has to be understood somewhat 
>differently from the belief that bishops are 
>"directly" descended from the Apostles "as the 
>fist bishops."
>As for the Irenaeus tradition dropping out of 
>the Western tradition: No. In the Roman canon of 
>every Mass the commemorations of the popes still 
>begin with Linus:  "Linus, Cletus, Clement, 
>Xistus, Cornelius"; they  follow upon the 
>Apostles in the Canon.
>
>GHB
>
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>>medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
>>
>>Peter is established as first bishop of Rome by 
>>the time the Liber pontificalis was compiled in 
>>the 9th century.  See The Book of Pontiff, 
>>trans. Raymond Davis (Liverpool UPrm=, 1989), 
>>pp. 1-2.
>>Platina takes up that version in the 15th 
>>century.  Did the Irenaeus list drop out of the 
>>Western tradition?
>>
>>Tom Izbicki
>>
>>John Wickstrom wrote:
>>>medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
>>>
>>>John, your first sentence seems (perhaps 
>>>intentionally) ambiguous. Traditional Catholic 
>>>teaching makes Peter the first bishop of Rome 
>>>(2nd and 3rd century sources according to, 
>>>most recently,  Mc Brian's new book on /The 
>>>Church/); in that tradition your sentence 
>>>should read "L. was Peter's successor and 
>>>[therefore] the second bishop of Rome." My 
>>>understanding is that  Linus appears as the 
>>>first name in the list by Irenaeus that you 
>>>mention, making him, not Peter, the first 
>>>bishop of Rome. Peter's "primacy" of the Roman 
>>>church then would be, if anything,  a more 
>>>informal recognition, both during his time at 
>>>Rome and elsewhere as the New Testament 
>>>appointed (thou art Peter) leader of the 
>>>church (?)
>>>
>>>jbw
>>>
>>>
>>>John B. Wickstrom
>>>
>>>Kalamazoo College
>>>
>>>>  -----Original Message-----
>>>
>>>>  From: medieval-religion - Scholarly 
>>>>discussions of medieval religious culture
>>>
>>>>  [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of John Dillon
>>>
>>>>  Sent: Tuesday, September 23, 2008 12:43 AM
>>>
>>>>  To: [log in to unmask]
>>>
>>>>  Subject: [M-R] saints of the day 23. September
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  A reprise of that last post with the date 
>>>>corrected for the Archives.  Apologies for
>>>
>>>>  the duplication.
>>>
>>>>  --JD
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Today (23. September) is the feast day of:
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  1)  Linus, pope (d. 1st cent.).  According 
>>>>to most early sources for him L. was
>>>
>>>>  Peter's successor and the first bishop of 
>>>>Rome.  Irenaeus (_Adv. haer._ 3. 3. 13)
>>>
>>>>  identifies him with the L. of 2 Tim 4:21. 
>>>>The Liberian Catalogue dates his
>>>
>>>>  pontificate to the years 56-67; Jerome 
>>>>places in the years 67-78.  L. is named in
>>>
>>>>  the Roman and the Ambrosian Canons of the 
>>>>Mass.  He was venerated medievally
>>>
>>>>  as a martyr (traditional Catholics still think of him as one).
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Here's L. officiating at the sepultures of 
>>>>Sts. Peter and Paul in panels of an early
>>>
>>>>  fourteenth-century fresco in the basilica of 
>>>>San Piero a Grado (San Petro ad
>>>
>>>>  Gradus Arnenses) in the Pisan _frazione_ of that name:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/3qmw4z
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/4emvhh
>>>
>>>>  More views of this originally tenth- and 
>>>>eleventh-century church and of its
>>>
>>>>  important series of depictions of early popes:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cienne/sets/72157600114508041/
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  L.'s Vita in the Liber Pontificalis says 
>>>>that he was Tuscan.  The late fourteenth-
>>>
>>>>  and early fifteenth-century papal official 
>>>>and polymath Piero Maffei asserted in
>>>
>>>>  his _Commentariorum rerum urbanarum_  (finished, 1506) that L. came from
>>>
>>>>  Volterra.  In 1519 (remember, folks, in this 
>>>>list we go up to the year 1550) Leo X
>>>
>>>>  granted Volterra an Office of L. accepting 
>>>>as traditional L.'s Volterran origin.
>>>
>>>>  Volterra's church of San Lino was built for 
>>>>Maffei (d. 1522) on a site purported to
>>>
>>>>  have been where L.'s family once dwelt. 
>>>>Herewith two views of the terracotta
>>>
>>>>  bust of L. attributed either to Giovanni 
>>>>della Robbia (d. 1529) or to Benedetto di
>>>
>>>>  Buglione (d. 1521), now in Volterra's diocesan museum:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.tuttipapi.it/TombeMausoleiRitratti/78-Lino.jpg
>>>
>>>>  http://www.toscanaoggi.it/musei/foto/grandi/11-2.gif
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  2)  Thecla of Iconium (d. late 1st cent., 
>>>>supposedly).  We know about T. from the
>>>
>>>>  romance-like, late second-century apocryphal 
>>>>Acts of Paul and Thecla (BHG 1710-
>>>
>>>>  22; BHL 8020-25; BHO 1152-56).  This makes T. a nobly born young woman of
>>>
>>>>  Iconium (today's Konya in Turkey) whose 
>>>>determination to remain virginal arouses
>>>
>>>>  the hostility of parents and lovers, who is 
>>>>converted to Christianity by St. Paul,
>>>
>>>>  who is condemned to death by the Roman state, survives two attempted
>>>
>>>>  executions, converts her mother, lives as a 
>>>>recluse, miraculously avoids being
>>>
>>>>  raped by brigands, and finally dies a 
>>>>natural death.  Her many sufferings make
>>>
>>>>  her a martyr.  Widely venerated in medieval 
>>>>and modern Christianity, T. was
>>>
>>>>  dropped from the RM in 2001.  Her feast 
>>>>today remains on local calendars (e.g.,
>>>
>>>>  at Tarragona, which has her putative relics 
>>>>said to have been translated from
>>>
>>>>  Armenia and where she is the patron saint). 
>>>>Orthodox churches celebrate T. on
>>>
>>>>  24. September.
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  T. on the remains of a pilgrim flask from 
>>>>one of her Eastern cult sites, now in the
>>>
>>>>  Yale Art Gallery, New Haven (CT):
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/46a939
>>>
>>>>  Here's T., again between two beasts, on a 
>>>>sixth-century flask depicting both her
>>>
>>>>  and St. Men(n)as of Egypt. now in the Musée du Louvre, Paris:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.flickr.com/photos/antiquite-tardive/128179152/
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Two views of the entrance to the cave at 
>>>>Ma'aloula in Syria traditionally said to
>>>
>>>>  have been T.'s resting place:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/3fh6kc
>>>
>>>>  http://cache.virtualtourist.com/2054404.jpg
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  In this view of the late twelfth-century 
>>>>ciborium in the basilica di Sant'Ambrogio
>>>
>>>>  in Milan T. is the center figure in the group at the left:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/3hnbg3
>>>
>>>>  A smaller but clearer view:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.jemolo.com/alta/imgl0063.jpg
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Here's T. with St. Sebastian in the central 
>>>>panel of the Retable of Sts. Thecla and
>>>
>>>>  Sebastian (late fifteenth-century; 
>>>>attributed to Jaume Huguet) in the cathedral 
>>>>of
>>>
>>>>  Barcelona:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/488zel
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  3)  Sossus (Sossius, Sosius; d. 305, 
>>>>supposedly).  Today's less well known saint of
>>>
>>>>  the Regno is the early Christian martyr of 
>>>>Misenum (now Miseno [NA]) in coastal
>>>
>>>>  Campania.  S. is mentioned by the 
>>>>fifth-century exile in Campania Quodvultdeus
>>>
>>>>  of Carthage, was depicted in the now lost 
>>>>mosaics of the late fifth- or very early
>>>
>>>>  sixth-century church of St. Priscus at old 
>>>>Capua, is listed for today in the early
>>>
>>>>  sixth-century calendar of Carthage, appears 
>>>>in a non-Januarian sixth-century
>>>
>>>>  fresco in the catacombs of St. Gaudiosus at 
>>>>Naples, and is the subject of a verse
>>>
>>>>  epigram placed by pope St. Symmachus 
>>>>(498-514) over a relic niche in his chapel
>>>
>>>>  of St. Andrew next to old St. Peter's on the 
>>>>Vatican.  The latter calls S. a
>>>
>>>>  _minister_ (a term often designating a deacon) who attempted to save his
>>>
>>>>  bishop's life and who suffered martyrdom along with him.
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  A text of that epigram (PONTIFICIS VENERANDA SEQUENS... ) together with an
>>>
>>>>  Italian translation can be read about halfway down the page here:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.tuttofrattamaggiore.it/chiese/chiesa_sansosio.htm
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  In the late sixth- or seventh-century _Acta 
>>>>Bononiensia_ of the St. Januarius
>>>
>>>>  venerated especially at Naples (BHL 4132) 
>>>>and in subsequent versions of this
>>>
>>>>  account, S. was a deacon of Misenum who was 
>>>>already in prison when J., who was
>>>
>>>>  _not_ his bishop, became involved the 
>>>>tribunals that led to his own martyrdom,
>>>
>>>>  along with that of S. and others, at the 
>>>>Solfatara in the Phlegraean Fields outside
>>>
>>>>  of Pozzuoli.  S. was one of the saints of 
>>>>coastal Campania whose cult came early
>>>
>>>>  to England (probably with abbot St. Hadrian 
>>>>of Nisida) and traveled thence to the
>>>
>>>>  Low Countries, as evidenced by the Calendar 
>>>>of St. Willibrord, written between
>>>
>>>>  702 and 706 and now Paris lat. 10837.
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  According to a translation account (BHL 4116) of Januarius and some of his
>>>
>>>>  companions whose earliest witness is of the 
>>>>ninth century as well as to the
>>>
>>>>  historical martyrologies from Bede onward, 
>>>>S.'s remains were soon removed from
>>>
>>>>  their resting place at the Solfatara to a 
>>>>church at Misenum where they were
>>>
>>>>  venerated.  In John the Deacon's account 
>>>>(BHL 4135) of S.'s early tenth-century
>>>
>>>>  translation to Naples S.'s tomb in this 
>>>>church, which is said to have become
>>>
>>>>  ruinous, was recognized only because it 
>>>>still bore a few letters of his name.   Be
>>>
>>>>  that as it may, remains said to have been 
>>>>those of S. from Misenum were then
>>>
>>>>  deposited in a newly built Benedictine 
>>>>monastery in Naples that had recently
>>>
>>>>  acquired the relics of St. Severinus of 
>>>>Noricum and that shortly became known as
>>>
>>>>  the monastery of saints Severinus and 
>>>>Sossius (in the earliest sources, S.'s name
>>>
>>>>  appears as 'Sossus' but by this time the 
>>>>form with palatalizing 'i' was already
>>>
>>>>  standard).
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  From there S.'s cult spread medievally to 
>>>>such other Benedictine monastery towns
>>>
>>>>  as Falvaterra (FR) in southern Lazio and San 
>>>>Sossio Baronia (AV) in Campania.  In
>>>
>>>>  1806 the monastery was secularized and in 
>>>>1807 the remains or putative remains
>>>
>>>>  of Severinus and Sossius were formally 
>>>>translated to Fratta (now Frattamaggiore
>>>
>>>>  [NA]), just north of Naples, where they 
>>>>remain today in the originally twelfth- or
>>>
>>>>  thirteenth-century church of San Sossio, 
>>>>shown here with its baroque facade and
>>>
>>>>  sixteenth-century belltower:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/nsvcp
>>>
>>>>  This building, an Italian national monument 
>>>>sometimes said to go back in part to
>>>
>>>>  the tenth century and since last year a 
>>>>papal basilica, was gutted by fire in
>>>
>>>>  November 1945:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/3bovg9
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/2w6wly
>>>
>>>>  and has been restored in the interior to a "romanesque" look:
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/3bq33g
>>>
>>>>  http://tinyurl.com/3czkkl
>>>
>>>>  Italian-language accounts of the church are here:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.frattamaggiore.org/sansossio.htm
>>>
>>>>  http://www.tuttofrattamaggiore.it/chiese/chiesa_sansosio.htm
>>>
>>>>  http://www.trionfo.altervista.org/Monumenti/frattasossio.htm
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Also in Campania, S. is reported to be among 
>>>>the saints depicted in a twelfth-
>>>
>>>>  century Januarian portrait cycle at the 
>>>>church of St. Agnellus (S. Aniello) at
>>>
>>>>  Quindici (AV).  See the Italian-language discussion here:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.agendaonline.it/avellino/articoli/chiesaquindici.htm
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Here he is as depicted in the 
>>>>fifteenth-century Polyptych of Saints 
>>>>Severinus and
>>>
>>>>  Sossius (whose central figure is Severinus) 
>>>>now in Naples' Museo Nazionale di
>>>
>>>>  Capodimonte:
>>>
>>>>  http://www.prolocofratta.it/sansossio/images/sossio.jpg
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  4)  Constantius of Ancona (d. 6th cent.). 
>>>>We know about C. (in Italian, Costanzo)
>>>
>>>>  from pope St. Gregory the Great, 
>>>>_Dialogues_, 1. 5, where we are told that he
>>>
>>>>  lived for many years in monastic garb at 
>>>>Ancona, that he was mansionary there of
>>>
>>>>  the church of St. Stephen, that he was short 
>>>>of stature and unprepossessing to
>>>
>>>>  look at, and that he had a great reputation 
>>>>as a holy person, and that his holiness
>>>
>>>>  was attested by a miracle in which lamps 
>>>>that he had filled with water blazed
>>>
>>>>  just as though they contained oil.  Gregory 
>>>>then recounts an exemplary tale in
>>>
>>>>  which the humble and charitable C. embraces 
>>>>a rustic who had come to Ancona
>>>
>>>>  to see the great man of whom he has heard 
>>>>much but who on having C. pointed
>>>
>>>>  out to him refuses, thanks to C.'s 
>>>>appearance and the rustic's prejudices, to 
>>>>credit
>>>
>>>>  the identification.
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  The fourteenth-century hagiographers Pietro 
>>>>Calò and Petrus de Natalibus report
>>>
>>>>  that at some unspecified time C.'s relics 
>>>>were translated from Ancona to Venice
>>>
>>>>  and placed there on a 12. July in the church 
>>>>of St. Basil.  They also give today as
>>>
>>>>  C.'s _dies natalis_.  When Venice's parish 
>>>>of San Basilio vescovo was merged in
>>>
>>>>  1808/09 into that of Santi Gervaio e 
>>>>Protasio its putative relics of C. as they 
>>>>were
>>>
>>>>  then -- a fragment of bone had been given to 
>>>>the diocese of Ancona in 1760 --
>>>
>>>>  were transferred to the latter's church 
>>>>(a.k.a. San Trovaso).  They are said to
>>>
>>>>  remain there today.
>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>>  Best,
>>>
>>>>  John Dillon
>>>
>>>>  (Soss[i]us lightly revised from last year's post)
>>>
>>>>
>>>
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>
>--
>George Hardin Brown, Professor of English Emeritus
>Department of English, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2087
>Home: 451 Adobe Place, Palo Alto, CA 94306-4501
>Phones: Mobile: 650-269-9898; Fax: 650-725-0755; Home: 650-852-1231
>
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-- 
George Hardin Brown, Professor of English Emeritus
Department of English, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2087
Home: 451 Adobe Place, Palo Alto, CA 94306-4501
Phones: Mobile: 650-269-9898; Fax: 650-725-0755; Home: 650-852-1231

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