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PHD-DESIGN  December 2018

PHD-DESIGN December 2018

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Subject:

Re: Health Information acceptance

From:

Mauricio Mejia <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

PhD-Design - This list is for discussion of PhD studies and related research in Design <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 17 Dec 2018 09:35:29 -0700

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text/plain

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Dear Monica,
As Karel said this question is too broad. You need to be more specific
about what you are looking for. Here some thoughts.

For example, if you are thinking about the visual presentation of
information for health behavior change, there is some work in health fields
about risk communication (not much in design venues). Below is a short
segment of my PhD thesis (2013) where I briefly touch on the issue. I just
noticed other examples provided by Collen.

There is another type of work in behavioral economics that can be
considered knowledge useful in visual design. In behavioral economics, the
organ donation example is classic and related to visual presentation. In
those countries, where the "default rule" for driver license forms is
becoming a donor, there are more donors. In the forms, you have to check a
box to opt out. This is a simple visual element that may change the
behavior of many people.

As a side note, when you look at the actual visual material in health risk
communication or behavioral economics interventions, the composition
quality is poor. It is likely that non-professional designers create most
of the visual products to test specific variables.

We may think that researchers in health and behavioral economics are doing
more design research than researchers in design. But that research is too
much focused on specific variables of behavior or visual presentation. In
design, we should focus more on systemic problems or the rhetorical
situation. I like Karel's framing about the multiple factors that may
affect information design for behavior change. When thinking in this way,
insight from fields such as behavioral economics may inform the design
process but not prescribe the solutions.

Another common assumption is that we want people to engage with information
in a reflective way. Here behavioral economics (and perception theory) is
useful to understand that we have very limited cognitive resources; so,
most of the information that is presented to us is ignored even when we are
interested.

Behavior change is very difficult, designers should not approach it
expecting that a piece of visual information (like a magic pill) will be
the solution.

Best,
Mauricio


--------------------------------------

Health information is usually communicated with verbal language written in
pamphlets and orally in medical appointments. Visual language can be a
complement to verbal language and increase comprehension in health
communication (Houts, Doak, Doak, & Loscalzo, 2006; Katz, Kripalani, &
Weiss, 2006). Even though literature in medication adherence proves that
graphics are effective, studies are limited to single medications, which
means that more research is needed in chronic conditions that demand
multiple recommendations or medications in patients (Katz et al.)

Health communication researchers have surveyed studies on efficacy of
health communication using graphic information (Anker, Senathirajah,
Kukafka, & Starren, 2006; Houts et al., 2006; Katz et al., 2006). The type
of graphics used in health communication shows a focus on compositional
elements that affect cognitive processing and perceptual accuracy, and
health communication researchers have tested simple formats such as
brochures or leaflets. Graphical information is basically used as a
complement and has low visual complexity – for example, graphics that show
how to take a medication in the day or statistical graphics that explain
the risk of a treatment. There is limited research on more systemic graphic
design products, such as a booklet or a website with several interfaces.
Additionally, the majority of these graphics have appeals to reason. Health
communicators have mainly relied on visualization of statistics and
probability to induce health behavior change (Hinyard & Kreuter, 2007).

--------------

Anker, J., Senathirajah, Y., Kukafka, R., & Starren, J. (2006). Design
features of graphs in health risk communication: A systematic review. *Journal
of the American Medical Informatics Association*, *13*, 608–618.

Hinyard, L., & Kreuter, M. (2007). Using narrative communication as a tool
for health behavior change: A conceptual, theoretical, and empirical
overview. *Health Education and Behavior*, *34*, 777–792.

Houts, P., Doak, C., Doak, L., & Loscalzo, M. (2006). The role of pictures
in improving health communication: A review of research on attention,
comprehension, recall, and adherence. *Patient Education and Counseling*,
*61*, 173–190.

Katz, M., Kripalani, S., & Weiss, B. (2006). Use of pictorial aids in
medication instructions: A review of the literature. *American Journal of
Health-System Pharmacists*, *63*, 2391–2397.
----------------------------------------


-- 
G. Mauricio Mejia, MDes, PhD
Assistant professor The Design School
Arizona State University


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