JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  December 2015

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION December 2015

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

FEAST - A Saint for the Day (Dec. 20): pope St. Zephyrinus

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 20 Dec 2015 20:23:54 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (37 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

The surviving portion of Zephyrinus' entry in the so-called Liberian Catalogue (shortly after 352) tells us that he was bishop of Rome from 198 to 217. He succeeded pope St. Victor I and was followed by pope St. Callistus I. His entry in the _Liber Pontificalis_ says that he was a native of Rome, ascribes to him with doubtful accuracy some regulations of church practice, and says that he  was buried in a separate chamber in the cemetery of Callistus (one above the so-called Chamber of the Popes has been interpreted as his).  According to the tendentious _Philosophoumena_ or _Refutatio omnium haeresium_ of an Hippolytus who tends be called Hippolytus of Rome, Zephyrinus was simple and uneducated and did not do enough to please Hippolytus when it came to repressing heresies; furthermore, still according to Hippolytus, he was covetous, took bribes, and routinely allowed his even more dishonest creature, the likewise theologically naive Callistus (this is the future Callistus I), to influence his decisions to the detriment of good order in the church.

Eusebius of Caesarea (_Historia ecclesiastica_ 5. 28. 8-12) offers a rather different picture of this pope.  Following the now lost anti-heretical _Smikros labyrinthos_ ("Little Labyrinth") and followed by Theodoret of Cyr[rh]us (_Haereticarum fabularum compendium_, 2. 5), he is silent about Zephyrinus' failings as alleged by Hippolytus.  What he does relate is an incident in which Zephyrinus comes across as a stern but ultimately merciful disciplinarian.  In Eusebius' telling a person of orthodox belief named Natalius -- in Rufinus' translation of the _Hist. eccl._ into Latin, normative for the medieval Latin West, he's called Natalis -- allowed himself to act as bishop of a community of Roman heretics in return for a hefty monthly salary.  Repeated admonitory dream visions failed to dissuade him from this course.  But a nightlong painful beating administered by angels led Natalius to repentance.  Donning a hair shirt and sprinkling himself with ashes, he went immediately to Zephyrinus, threw himself at the latter's feet, and tearfully confessed his error.  He then publicly abased himself before both clergy and laity until the entire church sought his forgiveness.  Displaying to Zephyrinus the welts from his beating, he was just barely allowed re-admittance to the communion of the faithful.  (For the passage both in Eusebius' Greek and Rufinus' Latin, go to <http://archive.org/stream/p1eusebiuswerke02euse#page/502/mode/2up>.)

Zephyrinus is absent from the _Depositio martyrum_ of the Chronographer of 354.  In the  eighth- or ninth-century calendar of male saints in the atrium of Rome's San Silvestro in Capite <http://tinyurl.com/5harwr> he and St. Tarsicius are entered under 26. July but only Tarsicius is designated a martyr.  Similarly, the ninth-century martyrologies of St. Ado of Vienne and Usuard of Saint-Germain (following the _Liber Pontificalis_, these record Zephyrinus under 26. August) do not consider him a martyr.   But later medieval calendars are said so to designate him and he was so designated as well both in the general Roman Calendar prior to his removal from it in 1969 and in the Roman Martyrology prior to its revision of 2001.  In the latter Zephyrinus' commemoration was moved from 26. August to today, following the first of two entries for him in the (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology (the other is under 21. December).


Some period-pertinent images of pope St. Zephyrinus:

as depicted (at center, hearing Natalis' appeal for forgiveness) in an earlier fourteenth-century copy of books 9-16 of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (ca. 1335; Paris, BnF, ms. Arsenal 5080, fol. 160v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b7100627v/f326.item.zoom

as depicted (at center, hearing Natalis' appeal for forgiveness) in a mid-fifteenth-century copy of Giovanni Colonna's _Mare historiarum_ (betw. 1447 and 1455; Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 4915, fol. 211r):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b6000905v/f491.item.zoom

as depicted in a late fifteenth-century Roman breviary of French origin (after 1482; Clermont-Ferrand, Bibliothèque du patrimoine, ms. 69, fol. 536r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht4/IRHT_081379-p.jpg

as depicted (right margin, second from bottom; as _Sepherinus_) in a hand-colored woodcut in the Beloit College copy of Hartmann Schedel's late fifteenth-century _Weltchronik_ (_Nuremberg Chronicle_; 1493) at fol. CXIIIIv:
http://www.beloit.edu/nuremberg/book/6th_age/left_page/18%20%28Folio%20CXIIIIv%29.pdf

Best,
John Dillon
**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: subscribe medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: unsubscribe medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/medieval-religion

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

December 2019
November 2019
October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager