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FEAST - Two Saints for the Day (October 28), Sts. Simon and Jude, Apostles


John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>


medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>


Fri, 28 Oct 2016 06:25:59 +0000





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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Simon (Simon the Zealot; Simon Cananaeus; in Greek, Symeon) and Jude (Jude Thaddaeus, Jude of James) occur next to each other in lists of the Twelve Apostles (Mt 10:3, 4; Mk 3:18; Lk 6:15; Acts 1:13).  Contrary to what was thought in the Middle Ages, it is not certain that the apostle Jude was the author of the Epistle that bears his hardly unique name.  The reported places and manners of these saints' deaths vary enormously.  According to Eusebius of Caesarea, Simon was crucified in very advanced years by order of Atticus, a Roman governor of Palestine under Trajan.  He and Jude share a legendary, originally late antique Passio (BHL 7749-7750a) that calls Simon _Simon Chananaeus_ and Jude _Iudas Zelotes_ and that has them evangelizing in what would appear to be Parthia, coming into conflict with magi there, and finally suffering martyrdom on 28. October.  Or perhaps they died in Armenia, where they are traditionally considered that nation's apostles along with St. Bartholomew and where Jude (as Thaddaeus) and Bartholomew are commemorated jointly on 28. November.  Today (28. October) is their feast day in the Roman Calendar as well as in the calendars of other churches.  In many Byzantine-Rite churches Simon is celebrated on 10. May and Jude is celebrated on 19. June.

Some period-pertinent images of Simon and/or Jude, apostles:


a) Simon and Jude as depicted (Jude at center; Simon at right; at left, St. Bartholomew) in the later fifth-century mosaic ceiling (betw. 451 and 475) of the Neonian Baptistery / Orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna:



b) Simon and Jude as depicted (Simon at far left; Jude just above him on the arch soffit) in the very late fifth- or early sixth-century mosaics of the Cappella Arcivescovile (a.k.a. Cappella di Sant'Andrea) in Ravenna:


c) Simon and Jude as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (betw. 527 and 548) of the triumphal arch in the basilica di San Vitale in Ravenna :

1) Simon: http://www.kornbluthphoto.com/images/VitaleChancelArch1.jpg  [photograph courtesy of Genevra Kornbluth] 

2) Jude: http://www.soniahalliday.com/images/IT17-9-10.jpg


d) Simon and Jude as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (carefully restored, 1890-1900) of the triumphal arch in the Basilica Eufrasiana in Poreč:

1) Simon (at far left): http://www.atrieste.eu/Foto/A004/Istria/atsEufrasiana13c.jpg

2) Jude (at far right): http://www.atrieste.eu/Foto/A004/Istria/atsEufrasiana13e.jpg

e) Simon as depicted in a tenth-century fresco of the Grotta dei Santi in Pignataro Maggiore (CE; near Calvi Risorta) in northern Campania:



f) Simon as depicted in relief (at right; at left, St. Bartholomew) on a later tenth-century ivory reliquary casket (betw. ca. 951 and 1000) of probable Constantinopolitan in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: 


g) Simon (at right) and Jude as depicted in an eleventh-century lectionary from the abbey of St. Martial in Limoges (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 5301, fol. 236v):



h) Simon (right-hand leaf, at center) and J. (at right; at left, the emperor Henry III [d. 1056]) as depicted in the mid-eleventh-century Emperor's Bible or Codex Caesareus Upsaliensis, formerly at Echternach (Uppsala, Universitetsbibliotek, cod. C 93, fol. 4r):


i) Simon and Jude as portrayed on later eleventh-century coins from Frisia and from the imperial mint in Goslar:



j) Simon (at left; at right, St. James) as depicted in the eleventh- or twelfth-century frescoes of the Eski Gümüş monastery near Gümüşler in the Turkish province of Niğde:



k) Simon (lower register at left) as depicted in the mid-twelfth-century apse mosaics (completed in 1148) of the basilica cattedrale della Trasfigurazione in Cefalù:

in the mid-twelfth-century apse mosaics (completed in 1148) of the basilica cattedrale della Trasfigurazione in Cefalù:


Detail view:


l) Simon (at left; at right, St. Bartholomew) as depicted in the mid-twelfth-century mosaics (betw. 1146 and 1151) of the chiesa di Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (a.k.a. chiesa della Martorana) in Palermo:



m) Simon and Jude as portrayed in high relief by Gruamonte at different locations in his sculpture of Christ, the apostles, and flanking angels (ca. 1167) on the lintel above the central portal on the face of Pistoia's chiesa di San Bartolomeo in Pantano:

1) Simon (second from left; betw. an angel and St. Matthew): http://tinyurl.com/nrl6ewe

2) Jude (second from left; betw. St. Andrew and St. James): http://tinyurl.com/qafv6yg

n) Jude (third from left) and Simon (at far right) as portrayed in relief by Anselmo da Campione in his Last Supper panel on the later twelfth-century parapet (_pontile_; ca. 1170-1180) in the cattedrale di San Geminiano in Modena:



o) Simon as depicted in the later twelfth-century Ascension fresco (ca. 1176-1200) in the church of St. George in Staraya Ladoga (Leningrad oblast):



p) Jude as depicted in a seemingly later twelfth-century New Testament perhaps from Cyprus or Palestine (ca. 1176-1200; Paris, BnF, Ms. Coislin 200, fol. 207r):


q) as depicted (martyrdom; both by the sword) in one of four panels of a full-page illumination in the late twelfth-century so-called Bible of Saint Bertin (ca. 1190-1200; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 5, fol. 26v, sc. 1B):


r) Simon and Jude as depicted (martyrdom; both by the lance) in the late twelfth-century Navarre Picture Bible (1197; Amiens, Bibliothèque Louis Aragon, ms. 108, fol. 211r):



s) Simon as twice depicted in the later twelfth- or early thirteenth-century frescoes in the santuario di Maria SS. Regina (a.k.a. Santa Maria d'Anglona) at Tursi (MT) in Basilicata:

1) at left, with another disciple:


2) at right, undergoing a beating before the seated Atticus:


t) Jude (third from left) and Simon (fourth from left) as depicted on a seemingly early thirteenth-century wooden chest from the monastery of Santa María de Carrizo, Carrizo de la Ribera (León), now in the Museo de la Catedral de Astorga:


u) Simon and Jude as depicted (with scenes from their Passio) in the earlier thirteenth-century window devoted to them (ca. 1220-1225) in the basilique cathédrale Notre-Dame in Chartres (for detail views, click on the numbered panels at right):



v) Simon as depicted in the mid-thirteenth-century Touke Psalter from Bruges (ca. 1250-1260; Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Walters ms. W.36, fol. 61v):


w) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted (bas-de-page) in a later thirteenth-century psalter and book for hours for the Use of Liège (ca. 1251-1300; Den Haag,  KB, ms. 76 G 17, fol. 133r):


x) Simon as portrayed in a silver gilt statuette on the later thirteenth-century copper gilt châsse of St. Remaclus (completed betw. 1263 and 1268) in the église Saint-Sébastien in Stavelot:

Simon: http://tinyurl.com/p734m84

y) Simon and Jude as portrayed in the late thirteenth-century pier statues in the choir of Köln's Hohe Domkirche Sankt Peter und Maria:

1) Simon: http://www.koelner-dom.de/index.php?id=16754&L=1

2) Jude: http://www.koelner-dom.de/index.php?id=16737&L=1

z) Simon and Jude as depicted (martyrdom; both by the sword) in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the _Legenda aurea_ (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 148r):


aa) Simon (at left; martyrdom by crucifixion) and Jude (at right; martyrdom by the sword) as depicted in the late thirteenth-century Livre d'images de Madame Marie (ca. 1285-1290; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 16251, fol. 70r):


bb) Simon as depicted in the late thirteenth- or very early fourteenth-century frescoes  (ca. 1290-1305) attributed to Manuel Panselinos in the Protaton church on Mt. Athos:



cc) Simon as depicted in the fourteenth-century apse frescoes of the basilica di Sant'Abbondio in Como:


dd) Simon and Jude as depicted by Duccio di Buoninsegna on his early fourteenth-century Maestà (betw. 1308 and 1311) in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo in Siena:

1) Simon: http://www.artflakes.com/de/products/duccio-apostel-simon

2) Jude: http://www.artflakes.com/de/products/duccio-apostel-thaddaeus

ee) Simon and Jude as depicted (bas-de-page, at right; at left, three magi) in the early fourteenth-century Queen Mary Psalter (ca. 1310-1320; London, BL, Royal MS 2 B VII, fol. 273v):



ff) Simon as depicted (lower register, second from left) in separate calendar compositions in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. ca. 1312 and 1321/1322) of the narthex in the monastery church of the Theotokos at Gračanica in, depending upon one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:

1) Simon (May calendar; lower register, second from left; crucified):


Detail view:


2) Jude (June calendar; lower register, at far right; trussed and hanging from a pole):


gg) Simon (at left) and Jude as depicted in earlier fourteenth-century panel paintings by the workshop of Simone Martini (ca. 1320) in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC:


hh) Simon and Jude (martyrdom; both crucified, Jude also pierced by a lance) as depicted under separate days in an earlier fourteenth-century pictorial menologion from Thessaloniki (betw. 1322 and 1340; Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Gr. th. f. 1, fols. 39r, 44r):

1) Simon (at left in panel at lower left):


2) Jude (at left in panel at lower left):


ii) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted by Ugolino di Nerio in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (?ca. 1325-1328; from his dismembered Santa Croce altarpiece) in the National Gallery, London:


Zoomable image:


jj) Simon and Jude (martyrdom; both by the sword) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century French-language legendary of Parisian origin with illuminations attributed to the Fauvel Master (ca. 1327; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 53r):


kk) Simon and Jude as depicted (left margin, lower image; martyrdom by the sword and the lance; upper image: martyrdom of St. Matthew) in a pen-and-ink drawing in an earlier fourteenth-century copy of Neapolitan origin of Paulinus of Venice, _Chronologia magna_ (after 1329; Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 4939, fol. 60v):


ll) Simon and Jude as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century copy, from the workshop of Richard and Jeanne de Montbaston, of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1348; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 241, fol. 286r):


mm) Simon and Jude as depicted (Simon at left, holding a crozier; Jude at right, holding a club) in the Litanies section of a later fourteenth-century miscellany of mostly French-language devotional texts (betw. 1351 and 1400; Paris, BnF, Français 400 [Colbert 1432], fol. 26v):


nn) Simon as depicted in the later fourteenth-century frescoes (1360s and 1370s; restored, 1968-1970) in the church of St. Demetrius in Marko's Monastery at Markova Sušica:


oo) Simon and Jude as depicted in an historiated initial "I" in a later fourteenth-century Roman missal of north Italian origin (ca. 1370; Avignon, Bibliothèque-Médiathèque Municipale Ceccano, ms. 136, fol. 27v):


pp) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted by Lorenzo Salimbeni on the wings of his late fourteenth-century altarpiece of the mystical marriage of St. Catherine of Siena (1400) in the Pinacoteca civica "Padre Pietro Tacchi Venturi" of San Severino Marche:


A closer view (better for some details but not for color):


qq) Simon and Jude as portrayed in high relief (fifth and sixth from left) on one of the long sides of the late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century tomb of St. Wendelin in his basilica in Sankt Wendel:


rr) Jude (at left; martyrdom by halberd) and S. (at right; martyrdom by a short sword) as depicted in a fifteenth-century panel painting of Rhineland origin in the Pinacoteca Vaticana:



ss) Simon as depicted (at far left; holding a saw) in a fifteenth-century altarpiece in the Galleria Sabauda in Turin:


tt) Simon and Jude (at left and at center, respectively; at right, St. Margaret of Antioch) as portrayed in an early fifteenth-century (ca. 1410) altar frontal in wool, linen, and silk from Strasbourg / Straßburg now in the Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt am Main:


uu) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted in an historiated initial "D" in the earlier fifteenth-century Breviary of Marie de Savoie (ca. 1430; Chambéry, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 4, fol. 636r):


vv) Jude as depicted by Bicci di Lorenzo in a detached fragment, preserved in the Museo dell'Opera del duomo in Florence, from one of his and his workshop's earlier fifteenth-century frescoes (ca. 1436-1440) in the nave of Florence's cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore:


ww) Simon as depicted in the earlier fifteenth-century Hours of Catherine of Cleves (ca. 1440; New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library and Museum, Morgan MS M.917, p. 233):


xx) Jude as depicted (holding a saw) in an historiated initial "I" in a mid-fifteenth-century Dutch-language history bible (1443; Den Haag, KB, ms. 69 B 10, fol. 187r):


yy) Simon as depicted in grisaille (holding a saw and a book) by Jean le Tavernier in the Suffrages of the mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Philip of Burgundy (ca. 1451-1460; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 2, fol. 252v):


zz) Simon and Jude (?Jude at left, holding a club; ?Simon at right, holding a saw) as depicted in an historiated initial "S" in a later fifteenth-century copy of Jean Mansel's _Fleur des histoires_ (ca. 1451-1475; Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine, ms. 1560, fol. 195v):


aaa) Simon and Jude as depicted (overcoming demons in the presence of magi and of the king of Babylon) in a later fifteenth-century copy of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1463; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 50, fol. 335v):


bbb) Simon and Jude as depicted on different ranges of the later fifteenth-century chancel screen (ca. 1479) in the church of St. Helen, Ranworth (Norfolk):

1) Simon (at left; at right, St. Thomas the Apostle):


2) Jude (at left; at right, St. Matthew the Apostle):


ccc) Simon and James as depicted (accused by magi) in an even later fifteenth-century copy (ca. 1480-1490) of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 245, fol. 148v):


ddd) Simon and Jude as depicted by Miguel Ximénez and workshop in adjacent panels of his and Martín Bernad's late fifteenth-century altarpiece of the Holy Cross (completed, 1487) for the parish church of Blesa (Teruel) and now, after dismemberment, mostly in the Museo de Zaragoza:

1) Simon: (at right, holding a sword; at left, St. Matthew the Apostle): 


2) Jude: (at left, holding a saw; at right, St. Matthias the Apostle):


eee) Simon and Jude as separately depicted (martyrdom) in hand-colored woodcuts in the Beloit College copy of Hartmann Schedel's late fifteenth-century _Weltchronik_ (_Nuremberg Chronicle_; 1493):

1) Simon (fol. CVIIv; martyrdom by club and by sword): http://tinyurl.com/9vusjwo

2) Jude (fol. CVIIr; martyrdom by club): http://tinyurl.com/997h3ez


John Dillon


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