II. General Bibliography and Bibliographical Essays
Dannenbauer, Heinz. Die Quellen zur Geschichte der KaiserKrönung Karls
des Grossen, tr. Bennett D. Hill. (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.,
1931), pp. 10-28.
Folz, Robert. Le Couronnement impérial de Charlemagne (Trente journées
qui ont fait la France: 25 décembre 800). English translation: The
Coronation of Charlemagne, tr. J.E. Anderson. (London: Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1974), pp. 118-150.
In this text Folz first chronicles the concept of empire in the eighth
century, then moves to how the coronation of Charlemagne brought it
about in the ninth. The major sources upon which Folz draws point to
Charles' significance in apocalyptic terms: the writings of his chief
advisor Alcuin and the Song of Roland, both of which continually refer
to him as a new David, a messiah-king. The second part deals more with
the tribulations of Leo III in Rome, then goes on to posit that the
imperial coronation was no more than putting a name (nomen imperatoris)
on the power (potestas) that Charles had already earned for himself and
not of eschatological significance.
Landes, Richard. "Lest the Millennium Be Fulfilled: Apocalyptic
Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography 100-800 CE." The
Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages, ed. Werner Verbeke et
al. (Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 1988), pp. 178-203.
In this article Landes argues that as the year 6000 AMII approached,
the theological leaders of the day rushed to use Carolingian power to
find a newer, less eschatological chronology, as the masses were quite
familiar with the concept of AM dating and the sabbatical millennium of
the year 6000, though these same theologians were just as aware of the
approach of the millennial date. He continues to note that the reason
that historians have not mentioned the connection between the imperial
coronation and the year 6000 because they felt it unimportant (199);
however, the fact that Landes notes this gives documentational basis for
the idea that a substantial portion of the Carolingian areas would have
seen Charlemagne as something more than another king, in fact as one who
was to usher in a new age.
Van Meter, David C. The Empire of the Year 6000: Eschatology and the
Sanctification of Carolingian Politics. Dissertation: Boston
University, 1997, iv-v, 104-164.
In this dissertation Van Meter states that while not doing so overtly,
the leaders of the Carolingian period were aware of the eschatological
significance of their own times and incorporated this idea into the
politics of the developing empire. Van Meter especially points to the
loud crowing of the rooster Beatus as 6000/800 approached as one written
source, while the writings of Alcuin also seek to establish Charles'
position in history. A new theory here is that Alcuin's own ill health
at that time fueled his apocalyptic dreams, as he attempted to spur
Charlemagne, who was concerned about the role of the Franks in the Latin
Church -- Van Meter's explanation for Einhard's portrayal of his
disapproval of the nomen imperatoris -- to serve as western Europe's
guide through the "last days." Later, Van Meter posits that apocalyptic
symbols can be found not only in the writings -- Charlemagne himself was
barely literate, let alone the masses -- but also in the royal court and
the architecture of the time. Van Meter's text gives one a chance to
see this particular series of historical events not from a bat's
perspective, and also provides through his ample notation a wealth of
other source material by which one can circumvent the standard owl-bat
historical documentation, of great aid to one attempting to do the same.
III. Other Works Consulted
Bullough, Donald. The Age of Charlemagne. (London: Elek Books Limited,
1965), pp. 160- 183.
Classen, Peter. Karl der Grosse, das Papsttum und Byzanz: die
Begrundung des Karolingischen Kaisertums. In Beitrage zur Geschichte
und Quellenkunde des Mittelalters, Bd. 9, 1985 ed.
Cohn, Norman. The Pursuit of the Millennium. (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1970), pp. 19-36, 71-74.
Dawson, Christopher. "The Coronation as Evidence of the Birth of a New
Civilization." The Coronation of Charlemagne: What Did It Signify?,
ed. Richard E. Sullivan. (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1959), pp.
Drake, Harold Allen. In Praise of Constantine: A Historical Study and
New Translation of Eusebius' Tricennial Orations. (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1976).
Dutton, Paul Edward. The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian
Empire. (Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 1994), pp. 45-48,
Fitchenau, Heinrich. Das karolingische Imperium. English translation:
The Carolingian Empire, tr. Peter Munz. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell,
1968), pp. 23-75.
Folz, Robert. "Eighth Century Concepts About the Roman Empire." The
Coronation of Charlemagne: What Did It Signify?, ed. Richard E.
Sullivan. (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1959), pp. 4-13.
Ganshof, François Louis. The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne:
Theories and Facts. (Glasgow: Jackson, Son, & Co., 1949).
Gil, Juan, "Los terrores del anno 6000," in Actas del Simposio para el
Estudio de Los Codices del "Commentario al Apocalipsis" de Beato de Liebana
(Grupo de Estudios Beato de Liebana, 1; Madrid 1978), pp.217-47
Gry, Léon, Le millénarisme dans ses origines et son développement (Paris,
Halphen, Louis. Charlemagne et l'empire carolingien. English
translation: Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire, tr. Giselle de
Nie. (Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1977), pp.
Heid, Stephan, Chiliasmus und Antichrist-Mythos. Eine frühchristliche
Kontroverse um das Heilige Land (Hereditas, 6; Borengsser, Bonn, 1993)
Loyn, H.R. and Percival, John. The Reign of Charlemagne: Documents on
Carolingian Government and Administration. (New York: St. Martin's
Press, 1975), pp. 123-128.
Schmidt, R., "Aetates mundi. Die Weltalteer als Gliederungsprinzip der
Geschichte," Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, 67 (1956),
Center for Millennial Studies
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