Dear Mr. Ault,
That's quite a list! It will take a bit of effort to track all of
them down. Here are a few suggestions that may help:
For the African councils see _Concilia Africae A. 345-A.525_, ed. Charles
Munier, Corpus Christianorum, series Latina, vol. 149 (Turnhout: Brepols,
For the French councils see _Concilia Galliae A. 314-506_, ed. Charles
Munier, Corpus Christianorum, series Latina, vol. 148 (Turnhout: Brepols,
1963) and _Concilia Galliae A. 511-695_ ed. C. de Clercq, Corpus
Christianorum, series Latina, vol. 148A (Turnhout: Brepols, 1963).
For the Spanish councils see _Concilios Visigóticos e Hispano-Romanos_, ed.
José Vives, et al., España cristiana, vol. 1 (Madrid-Barcelona: Consejo
Superior de Investigaciones Científicos, 1963).
As for the Council of Clovesho in 747 see _Councils and Ecclesiastical
Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland_, ed. A. W. Haddan and W.
Stubbs, 3 vols.(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1869-78; repr. 1964), vol. 3.
At 10:27 AM 5/1/97 -0500, CTAULT wrote:
>Dear M.R. Friends,
> We know very little about theatre and performance during the
>latter period of the Roman Empire, and even less about the so
>called "Dark Ages". Various sources cite a few names and events,
>but usually go no further than that.
> I have compiled the following list of events and people
>which I would like to investigate. Can anyone provide me with
>sources for these items? Can anyone add to the list? I realize
>that this is a lot to ask all at once, but I would be extremely
>grateful for any help I can get.
>EDICTS OF THE CHURCH REGARDING ACTORS AND ACTING.
>300 Something (Synod? Council?) at Elvira.
>3l4 Council of Aries.
>34l-38l Laedicean Council.
>397 Council of Carthage.
>398 Fourth Council at Carthage.
>397 African Church decree.
>St. John Chrysostom preached very strong sermons against the
>theatre, as did Tertullien and Lactantius.
>40l Fifth Council of Carthage.
>452 Second Synod of Arras.
>506 Council of Agde.
>6l0 Council of Bishop of Bracara.
>692 Councilman Trullanun at Constantinople.
>7th Council of Isadore of Seville.
>742 Synodus Francica.
>747 Second Council of Cloveshow in Mercia.
>787 Synod of Nicasa.
>800-8l4 Charlemagne's laws.
>8l3 Synod Turonensis (Tours). There were others this same year.
>829 Coucilium Parisiense.
>847 Councilius Moguntinum.
>890 Councilius Manetenso.
>Thus, civil and ecclesiastical authorities continually recognized
>the existence of actors and performers by edict, but what were
>these edicts? What can we learn from them about performance and
>theatre at this time?
>Many prominent churchmen defended theatre and performers. For
>St. Augustine loved the theatre in youth and defended it later in
>his _City of God_ as an important medium of education. Does he
>mention theatre elsewhere?
>Choricius, (ca. 530 A.D.) made an important defense of actors.
>This is the last positive mention of actors in the classical
>period. What was his defense?
>The Emperor Justinian, is said to have closed the theatres but
>the Empress Theodora was a mime actress, rather complicating
>things. The ambivalence towards Theatre and players is, perhaps
>summed up by noting that the state (Byzantium), who still
>regarded itself as heir to Rome (if not a continuation of Rome,
>itself), considered support of the theatre as a part of state
>functions, and included it in state festivals, replete with the
>emperor, himself, giving the imperial blessing from the royal
>box. The Church seems to have made some accommodation, here, but
>what was it?
>Are there other Church-men (-women?) who should be added to this
>I am told that two divergent sects of Christianity are supposed
>to have used drama and/or mime in their worship and were
>excommunicated for it. Who were they? How did they use these
>dramatic forms? What were the grounds for excommunication?
>Thank you very much,
>C. Thomas Ault
>Indian University of Pennsylvania
>Indiana, Pa. 15707, USA
>E-Mail: [log in to unmask]
James A. Brundage
History & Law
University of Kansas
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