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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  November 1996

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION November 1996

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Subject:

Re: discussions of huizinga

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Date:

Mon, 25 Nov 1996 07:31:27 -0500

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text/plain (9 lines) , CAVINESS.SAM (785 lines)

IF you have nor included material on the large number of wall paintings in
Denmark in your course material, I suggest you go to
<http://orb.rhodes.edu/encyclopedia/culture/Danish/Danindex.html> and look at
<The Danish all-Paintings> I attach, in HTML format, Caviness' review of
Banning's work on part of these wall paintings.

I hope that you find this of use. Jim



[ver] 4 [sty] [files] [charset] 82 ANSI (Windows, IBM CP 1252) [revisions] 0 [prn] HP LaserJet Series II [port] LPT1: [lang] 1 [fldnames] Field1 Field2 Field3 Field4 Field5 Field6 Field7 Field8 [desc] 842909596 5 791770827 30 3 0 0 0 0 1 [fopts] 0 1 0 0 [lnopts] 2 Body Text 1 [docopts] 5 2 [GramStyle] [tag] Body Text 2 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 0 0 0 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 280 1 2 . , $ Body Text 0 0 [tag] Body Single 3 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 0 0 0 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 280 1 2 . , $ Body Single 0 0 [tag] Bullet 4 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 0 288 288 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 <*0> 360 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 272 1 2 . , $ Bullet 0 0 [tag] Bullet 1 5 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 288 288 288 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 <*5> 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 280 1 2 . , $ Bullet 1 0 0 [tag] Number List 6 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 360 360 360 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 <*:>. 360 1 1 0 16 0 0 [nfmt] 272 1 2 . , $ Number List 0 0 [tag] Subhead 7 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49155 [algn] 1 1 0 0 0 [spc] 33 273 1 72 72 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 272 1 2 . , $ Subhead 0 0 [tag] Title 8 [fnt] Arial 360 0 16385 [algn] 4 1 0 0 0 [spc] 33 446 1 144 72 1 100 [brk] 16 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 272 1 2 . , $ Title 0 0 [tag] Header 9 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 0 0 0 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 280 1 2 . , $ Header 0 0 [tag] Footer 11 [fnt] Times New Roman 240 0 49152 [algn] 1 1 0 0 0 [spc] 33 273 1 0 0 1 100 [brk] 4 [line] 8 0 1 0 1 1 1 10 10 1 [spec] 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 [nfmt] 280 1 2 . , $ Footer 0 0 [lay] Standard 513 [rght] 15840 12240 1 1440 1440 1 1440 1440 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 1440 10800 12 1 720 1 1440 1 2160 1 2880 1 3600 1 4320 1 5040 1 5760 1 6480 1 7200 1 7920 1 8640 [hrght] [lyfrm] 1 11200 0 0 12240 1440 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 [frmlay] 1440 12240 1 1440 72 1 792 1440 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1440 10800 2 2 4680 3 9360 [txt] > [frght] [lyfrm] 1 13248 0 14400 12240 15840 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 [frmlay] 15840 12240 1 1440 792 1 14472 1440 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1440 10800 2 2 4680 3 9360 [txt] > [elay] [l1] 0 [pg] 3 11 475 95 0 0 0 0 65535 65535 Standard 65535 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65535 0 0 65535 0 0 0 0 0 17 864 32 96 0 0 0 65535 65535 Standard 65535 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65535 0 0 65535 0 0 0 0 0 23 0 19 1025 0 0 0 65535 65535 Standard 65535 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65535 0 0 65535 0 0 0 0 0 [edoc] <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><<html<;><<title<;>Banning<</title <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><<body<;>Knud Banning, ed., A Catalogue of Wall-Paintings in the Churches of Medieval Denmark, 1100-1600. Scania, Halland, Blekinge, 1: Introduction, Iconographical Index; 2: Catalogue A-M; 3: Catalogue N-<\X>; 4: Art Historical Survey; Addenda et Corrigend a.<</body<;> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;>(Studies in Ecclesiastical History Published by The Institute of Ecclesiastical History, The Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen.) Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1976-82. 1: pp. 167; color frontispiece, 220 illustrations. 2: pp. 301 ; 4 maps, numerous plans. 3: pp. 307; 4 maps, numerous plans. 4: pp. 125; 64 illustrations. (available only as 4-vol. set). Order from Inst. f. Kirkehistorie, K<\x>bmagergade 44, 1150 Copenhagen. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;> THIS FOUR-VOLUME study inaugurates a series that will provide a definitive reference work on "Danish" wall paintings (the provinces of Scania, Halland, and Blekinge passed to Sweden in the seventeenth century). Material has been collected by a te am of theologians, art histotians, and students from the University of Copenhagen over the past fifteen years. While archives in the Medieval Department of the National Museum provide a solid base for the study of wall paintings on the mainland, other terri tories that formed part of the archbishopric of Lund in the Middle Ages were virtually uncharted, and it was there that intensive field study began in 1968. The primary motivation for the survey was a concern with "medieval religious beliefs and association s," and accordingly volume 1 provides a very thorough iconographic index. The complete inventory fills two substantial volumes, with sites arranged alphabetically. The fourth volume attempts a chronological presentation, with discussion of style, ornament, and iconography by S<\x>ren Kaspersen and Ulla Haastrup. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;> The inventory presents basic information on the paintings of each site in a concise and clear way; for each church a brief introduction surveys the positions, dates, and chronology of the paintings, their relation to those of other sites, and the ir state of preservation; a bibliography is included. The inventory begins with the east end and is keyed by a numerical system to a schematic plan on the same page. Inscriptions are meticulously recorded and expanded, sometimes with the aid of prerestorati on photographs or watercolors, but they are not translated; a few will create difficulty for those who do not know medieval Danish. No halftone illustrations are included in the catalogue, but reproductions in volumes 1 and 4 are indicated in the inventory;  unfortunately the figure number has then to be found in the index. The illustration is rather sparse and the quality not high. However, research will be facilitated by the photographic negative numbers that are given for each subject in the inventory. As n oted by the authors (1:10-Il), the inventory does not include the history of each building, the dimensions of the building or the paintings, or a description of ornamental motifs and color. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;> The material published is very little known; generally regarded as provincial, derivative, and even , Scandinavian wall paintings have been completely overlooked in most survey works (e.g., G. Souchal, E. Carli, and J. Gudiol, <+">Gothic Painting <-"><[>New York, 1965]), or scarcely mentioned (e.g., O. Demus and M. Hitmer, <+">Romanesque Mural Painting<-"> <[>New York, 1976], pp. 11, 3R,46, 132). Yet the quantity of material available for study is great; over 175 sites are studied here. The authors have made the commendable decision to publish in English in order to make thei r work more accessible to scholars. They have also begun to combat the prejudices mentioned above by convincingly arguing in favor of earlier dates than those customarily assigned (e.g., for V<\d>, first half of the twelfth century or before 1157/58 instead  of ca. 1170; for Finja, 1125-50; for <\V>vraby, ca. 1200). These dates bring the paintings into the mainstream of developments elsewhere, indicating multiple international contacts and rapid transmission. Some of the affinities suggested in volume 4, howev er, raise difficult questions about the way in which various aspects of style were transmitted and absorbed into an eclectic local version. For instance, the paintings at V<\d> are compared with Italo-Byzantine works at Civate and Concordia Saggitaria, with  the Cluniac paintings at Berz<\i>-la-Ville in Burgundy, with the apse paintings in St. Gabriel's Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, with paintings in St. Patroclus in Soest, and a Mosan manuscript; the range in date is late eleventh century to 1166, and the hyp othesis that Byzantinizing elements were transmitted via Germany does not seem to be demonstrable. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;>Some similarities and differences in iconographies are also noticed in volume 4; interestingly, these often confirm the attribution of paintings in a group of sites to a single workshop, suggesting that the artisans rather than the patrons decide d on the precise form that a given subject might take. For instance, in the Sn<\e>restad group of the early fourteenth century a development in the representation of the Last Judgment is demonstrated. The inference may be in such cases that one is dealing w ith professional ateliers. On the other hand, an extremely interesting suggestion is made which might explain the crude character of the work of the N<\x>debo Master (otherwise known as the Master of the Large Noses) of ca. 1400: many of the subjects at Sto ra Hammar ate unique, and very sophisticated in theology, so the iconography could be the product of a lay brother or monk who was an amateur painter. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;>Some attempt is made in volume 4 to give an overview of trends in iconography; among influences identified in the thirteenth century are chivalry and the mendicant orders. It is noted (p. 30 and n. 5) that St. Martin is always represented, before  the late Gothic period, as a knight, and only later as a bishop. St. Christopher seems to have been popular as a feudal servant of the Lord (p. 3 1 and n. 8), though his cult elsewhere is associated with his role as protector of travelers; in England, wher e almost every church had an image of hlm on the north wall opposite the entrance -as in the Danish examples - several inscriptions record the belief that whoever looked on the saint would not be "sick or sorry" that day (F.Bond, <+">Dedications and Patron Saints of English Churches<-"> <[>London, 1914], pp. 167-69). <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;>The synthesis of the material presented in the catalogue is evidently at a preliminary stage. Cultural historians, art historians, and theologians will no doubt find numerous topics to elucidate and expand. The range of subject matter is perhaps limited however. For instance, the only parables illustrated are the popular eschatological ones of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, and Dives and Lazarus. Examples of the Apostles' Creed or the rare subject of the Mystic Wine Press at Malm<\v> (early sixteent h century, 1:70, fig. 91) expand upon examples elsewhere, although the latter has already been noticed outside Denmark. Hagiographers will find some legacies of foreign contacts, such as representations of St. Alban of England and St. Remigius of Reims. Of great interest for further study of patronage are the tables of donors, churchwardens and priests, artists and artisans (1:121-23). <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,> <<p<;>One important error should be mentioned (4: 32): the date of the Macejowski Bible (New York, Morgan Library, MS 63R) is given as "slightly later," rather than earlier, than the St. Louis Psalter (Paris, Bibliotheque nationale, MS lat. 10525, of 1 253/55-70); Branner and others place it about 1250 (R. Branner, <+">Manuscript Painting in Paris during the Reign of Saint Louis<-"> <[>Berkeley, 1977], p. 139 cf. p. 23R). Other anomalies may arise from the use of a second language, but despite these the a uthors are to be complimented on the clarity and the accuracy of their expression. It is perhaps regrettable that the book could not be typeset by a British press because in photo-offset from typed copy the whole burden of proofreading has fallen on the uni versity staff and students. Sometimes normal English usage has not been found, and the following corrections are suggested: 1:R5, majesty for highness; 1:101, Denis for Dionysius; 1:124, alewife for beer-woman; 4:10, Mosan for from the Maas; 4:11, classiciz ing for classicistic; 4: 1 6, <+">retardataire<-"> for retarded. Errors in spelling include Amminadab (1:93) and Zodiac (1:144). Hyphenation frequently ignores syllabification throughout. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R> <<p<;>In conclusion, a very notable body of material has begun to be brought to light, and it is to be hoped that the series will be carried to completion. Although in the long run our assessment of medieval art may not be radically changed by a knowle dge of these monuments, it is certain that scholarship will benefit from a more broadly based approach; any survey in the future should give more than a passing mention of the wealth of paintings in Scandinavia. <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><:#284,9360> <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><<p<;>Madeline H. Caviness <:R1,12,1,720,1,1440,1,2160,1,2880,1,3600,1,4320,1,5040,1,5760,1,6480,1,7200,1,7920,1,8640,><<p<;>Tufts University > [Embedded] 00016194

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