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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  September 1996

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION September 1996

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Subject:

Re: Dogs Query

From:

[log in to unmask] (Otfried Lieberknecht)

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Thu, 19 Sep 96 16:25 MET DST

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (179 lines)

Dear Christoph,

I can contribute a few citations regarding the docks licking the wounds or
ulcers of Lazarus (Lc 16,21). These dogs usually (but not always, see
Augustine and Greogry's alternative explanation) were interpreted ad bonam
partem, as opposed together with Lazarus himself (representative of paganity
converting to true belief) to the rich man and his brothers (representatives
of unbelieving Jews and Christian heretics). I paste from my e-texts which
usually do not give the precise number of the column or page, and are *not*
to be trusted as reliable transcriptions.

Yours,

  Otfried

------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Otfried Lieberknecht
 Schoeneberger Str. 11
 D-12163 Berlin
 Tel.: ++49 30 8516675 (fax on demand)
 E-mail: [log in to unmask]                                      
 Homepage for Dante studies: http://members.aol.com/lieberk/welcome.html
------------------------------------------------------------------------


>From Ambrosius, Expos. evang. sec. Lucam, VIII, 13-20, CCSL 14, p.302-305:
   14. Nec alienum putamus, ut de fide quoque opinemur hunc esse tractatum,
quam Lazarus abiectam de mensa diuitis colligit, cuius utique ulcera
secundum litteram diues fastidiosus horreret nec inter pretiosas epulas
unguentatosque conuiuas faetorem ulcerum lambentibus canibus sustineret, cui
odor aeris et ipsa esset natura fastidio, quamquam insolentia et tumor
diuitum indiciis conpetentibus exprimatur, quod ita condicionis inmemores
humanae sint, ut tamquam supra naturam siti de de miseriis pauperum
incentiua suarum capiant uoluptatum, rideant inopem, insultent egenti et
quorum misereri deceat his auferant.
   15. Vtrumque ergo qui uolet tamquam Lazarus colligat. Cui similem illum
puto, qui caesus saepius a Iudaeis ad patientiam credentium et uocationem
gentium ulcera sui corporis lambenda quibusdam uelut canibus offerebat, quia
scriptum est: conuertentur ad uesperum et famem patientur ut canes (Mt
15,22). Quod agnouit Chananitis illa mysterium, cui dicitur: nemo tollit
panem filiorum et mittit canibus (Mt 15,26). Agnouit hunc panem non panem
esse qui uidetur, sed illum qui intellegitur et ideo respondit: utique,
domine; nam et catelli edunt de micis quae cadunt de mensa dominorum suorum
(Mt 15,27). Micae istae de illo pane sunt. Et quia panis uerbum est et fides
uerbi est, micae uelut quaedam dogmata fidei sunt. Vnde respondit dominus,
ut ostenderet fideliter dictum: o mulier, magna est fides tua (Mt 15,28).
   16. O felicia ulcera, quae perpetuum excludunt dolorem, o uberes micae,
quae repellitis ieiunium sempiternum, quae colligentem pauperem aeternis
expletis alimentis! Abiciebat uos de mens sua archisynagogus, cum
propheticarum scripturarum et legis interna mysteria refutaret; micae enim
sermones sunt scripturarum, de quibus dicitur: et proiecisti sermones meos
post te. Abiciebat uos scriba, sed Paulus diligentissime colligebat in
iniuriis suis legens plebem. Lambebant ulcera eius qui morsu serpentis
intrepidum excusso serpente uiderunt et crediderunt. Lambebat ille carceris
custos, qui uulnera Pauli lauit et credidit. Beati canes, in quos ulcerum
talium destillat umor, ut adinpleat cor et inpinguet fauces eorum, quo
custodire domum, seruare gregem, cauere adsuescant lupos.

>From Augustine, Quaest. evang. II, 38, CCSL 44b, p.87-92:
   "Micae cadentes de mensa diuitis" sunt quaedam uerba legis, quae illi
iactantes quasi proiciebant in terram, cum superbe populo loquerentur.
"Vlcera" sunt confessiones peccatorum uelut mali humores a uisceribus
intimis foras erumpentes; "canes qui ea lingebant" nequissimi homines
amantes peccata, qui lata lingua etiam laudare non cessant opera mala, quae
in se alius gemens et confitens detestatur.

>From Petrus Chrysologus, Sermo 121, CCSL 24a, p.726ss.:
   Diues pauperem nec cadentibus de mensa micis pascit, et Lazarus pauper,
quia aliud non habebat, etiam de carnibus suis canibus humus extitit. Miser
diues, si panem non dedisti, quare uel canes abigere noluisti? Sed mitiores
te canes tui, immo tu saeuior canibus tuis, nam te saeuiente illi parcunt,
qui non ad morsum dentes, sed linguam ad obsequium sic producunt, ut in
modum spongiae non uexent uulnera, sed detergant. Diues, in canibus tuis
famem pietas uicit, in te impietatem saturitas non euicit. Nam quod canes
hoc studio fecere curatum, usus ipse, qui semper est in oculis, probat. Nam
canes lambendo semper curant uulnera sua. Canes curant pauperem magisterio
naturae, et homo hominem negligit ipsa grauiter accusante natura. Verum est,
uerum est quod diues, cum ne micas dare potest, semper auarus eget.


>From Gregory, Hom. in evang. II, hom. 40, PL 76,1301-1312: 
   At contra jacentis pauperis vulnera lingebant canes. Nonnunquam solent in
sacro eloqui per canes praedicatores intelligi. Canum etenim lingua vulnus
dum lingit, curat, quia et doctores sancti dum in confessione peccati nostri
nos instruunt, quasi vulnus mentis per linguam tangunt; et quia nos loquendo
a peccatis eripiunt, quasi tangendo [Sp.1303:] vulnera ad salutem reducunt.
Quia enim canum nomine, praedicatorum lingua signatur, Domino per Psalmistam
dicitur: "Lingua canum tuorum ex inimicis ab ipso" (Ps 67,24). Ex Judaeis
quippe infidelibus sancti praedicatores electi sunt, qui, in assertione
veritatis contra fures latronesque venientes, magnos pro Domino, ut ita
dicam, latratus dederunt. Quo contra de quorumdam reprobatione dicitur:
"Canes muti, non valentes latrare" (Is 56,10). Quia ergo praedicatores
sancti peccata damnant, confessionem vero peccatorum approbant, dicentes:
"Confitemini alterutrum peccata vestra, et orate pro invicem, ut salvemini"
(Iac 5,16), ulcera Lazari canes lingunt. Sancti etenim doctores dum
gentilium confessiones accipiunt, mentium vulnera saluti restituunt. Unde et
Lazarus bene interpretatur adjutus, quia ipsi hunc ad ereptionem juvant,
quia ejus vulnera per linguae correptionem curant. Potest etiam per
linctionem canum lata adulantium lingua signari. Adulantibus etenim vulnera
nostra lingere est, quod plerumque solent etiam ipsa mala quae nos in nobis
reprehendimus improbo favore laudare.

>From Ps.-Hieronymus, Expositio quatuor evangeliorum, PL 30,575:
   "Vulneribus plenus", id est, peccatis: dives Judaeos significat: pauper
gentes: canes, doctores, qui per linguam vulnera sanant.

Radulfus Ardens, Hom. in epist. et evang. Dominic. pars II, hom. 5, PL
155,1963C:
   "Sed et canes veniebant, et lingebant ulcera ejus". Ubi homo servo Dei
ministrare contemnebat, bestia, prout poterat, serviebat.

>From Richard of St. Victor, Liber exceptionum, Secunda pars, lib. XIII, cap.
26 (ed. J. Cha^tillon, Paris 1958, p.496s.):
   Sed contra pauperis vulnera canes lambunt, quia predicatores, dum
loquendo a peccatis eripiunt, quasi tangendo vulnera ad sanitatem reducunt,
sicut canis curat vulnera dum lingit. Unde Lazraus interpretatur bene
adjutus, quia ipsi hunc ad ereptionem juvant qui ejus vulnera per lingue
correptionem curant.

>From Albertus Magnus, In evang. Lucae (Opera omnia, ed. Borgnet, t.XXIII,
p.441ss.):
   "Sed et canes veniebant":
   Istud est ultimum. Quia nec dignus habitus est in conspectu divitis, a
quo canes prohiberentur. Et in hoc notatur nimia duritia et inhumana,
hominem videre canibus expositum, et canes ab eo non prohibere. Est autem
proverbium quoddam divitum, quando maledicunt pauperibus: Optant eos tradi
canibus devorandos. Unde sicut impiissima Jezabel canibus devorata est, IV
Reg. ix 36 et 37: "Comedent canes carnes Jezabel, et erunt carnes Jezabel
sicut stercus super faciem terrae". Reputant enim pauperes omni vituperio
dignos, et ad modum stercoris conculcandos.
   Haec igitur, ut puto, est expositio litteralis.
   Ex divina autem dispensatione conversum est hoc in lenimentum pauperis,
et diviti in cumulum damnationis. Lingua enim canum medicinalis est in
sanitatem, et mundat vulnera a putretudine. Et ideo canes benefici fuerunt
misero, cui dives subtraxit beneficium.
   Adhuc autem, pauper liberalior fuit canibus divitis, cibans eos suo
humore et cruore, cui dives avarus negavit cibum canum: miculae enim
cadentes, cibus sunt canum. Matth. xv, 27: "Nam et catelli edunt de micis
quae cadunt de mensa dominorum suorum".
   Adhum autem, patientiam et humilitatem ostendit pauper, a se canes
divitis non repellendo: indignationem autem dives ad pauperem, non
prohibendo cnes ab ipso. Et sic mirabili modo in uno et eodem facto, et
probatur virtus pauperis, et diviti acquiritur cumulus damnationis.
   Et hoc est quod addit:
   "Et lingebant ulcera ejus."
   Puto enim carnes [leg. canes] forte feroces venisse ad pauperem: sed ad
mansuetudinem fuisse conversos, cum ad pauperem venissent merito pauperis:
sicut et leones ad Danielem se habuerunt.
    Hoc autem etiam spiritualiter verum est. [...]
    "Sed et canes veniebant, et lingebant ulcera ejus". Hoc istis temporibus
verificatum est. Canes enim vantici, Ordines sunt praedicantium, qui non
exspectant domi, sed veniunt ad pauperes, et lingunt ulcera peccatorum
suorum, habentes in ore latratum praedicationis. Ad Titum, ii, 15: "Haec
loquere, et exhortare". Et hos ideo suscitavit Deus, quia antiqui canes
Praelati sunt, de quibus dicitur, Isa. lvi, 10 et 11: "Speculatores ejus
caeci omnes, nescierunt universi: canes muti non valentes latrare... Canes
impudentissimi, nescierunt saturitatem". Habent enim isti canes boni in
dentibus morsum increpationis et redargutionis. II ad Timoth. iv, 2: "Argue,
obsecra, increpa in omni patientia et doctrina". Habent nihilominus in
lingua medicamentum sanitatis. Eccli. xxxvi, 25: "Si est lingua curationis,
est et mitigationis et misericordiae". Proverb. xii, 18: "Lingua sapientium
sanitas est". Psal. lxvii, 24: "Lingua canum tuorum ex inimicis ab ipso".
Eccle. ix, 4: "Melior est canis vivus leone mortuo". Canis enim vivus est
bonus Praedicator, gratiam habens latratus in praedicatione, redargutionis
in dente, et medicationis in consilio linguae. Leo atuem mortuus, Praelatus
austerus, ab operibus Praelati et regiminis mortuus. Eccli. iv, 35: "Noli
esse sicut leo in domo tua, evertens domesticos tuos, et opprimens subjectos
tibi".
   Haec igitur sic satis apte spiritualiter exponuntur.

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