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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  November 2016

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION November 2016

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Subject:

FEAST - A Saint for the Day (November 30): St. Andrew the Apostle

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 30 Nov 2016 08:30:26 +0000

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture 
 
Like his brother Simon Peter, Andrew was a disciple of St. John the Forerunner before becoming an adherent of Jesus of Nazareth. According to Eusebius, he preached in Scythia, by which latter quite possibly is meant the Roman province of this name erected by Diocletian in today's southeastern Romania and northeastern Bulgaria (Ukrainians and Russians think otherwise, of course). Theodoret has Andrew preaching in Greece. From at least the fourth century onward it has been believed that he suffered martyrdom at Patras. 
  
In 357 relics venerated as Andrew's were brought from Patras to Constantinople's church of the Holy Apostles. Scots believe that in the eighth century their St. Regulus (Rule) brought the apostle's relics from Constantinople to today's St Andrews in Fife. Two illustrated pages on the St Rule Tower and the ruins of St Andrews cathedral at St Andrews are here: 
http://tinyurl.com/5rdxce 
http://tinyurl.com/yrfguc 
  
But all in Campania know that in 1208 Andrew's remains were brought from Constantinople to Amalfi, where they are now housed in the cathedral dedicated to him. Matthew of Amalfi's account of this translation, as published by the comte de Riant in its later thirteenth-century revised version, repays reading (this will be found in vol. 1 of succeeding versions of Riant's _Exuviae sacrae Constantinopolitanae_ [1876; 1877-78]). 
  
Of course, neither Matthew nor his reviser had any idea that in the 1460s the Despot of Morea, Thomas Palaeologus, would bring with him into exile in Italy a head said to be that of St. Andrew, that Pius II would acquire it for the Roman church and -- seizing upon this capital opportunity -- use it as a propaganda device for his projected crusade against the Turks, that in this context Cardinal Bessarion would give a welcoming speech to Andrew in the apostle's partial presence in 1462 (a heady moment, no doubt), and that in 1964 Paul VI would "return" this relic plus a finger bone from Andrew's relics in Amalfi to the Greek Orthodox church in Patras.  Herewith a few visuals: 
1) The opening page of Pius II's account of Andrew's reception in Italy (with an historiated initial "S" showing Pius holding a bust of the saint) as transmitted in a contemporary (1463-1464) collection of writings by this pontiff (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 5565 A, fol. 1r): 
http://tinyurl.com/c6n36lm 
2) Three views of Andrew's skull reliquary in Patras (two showing the relic): 
http://tinyurl.com/hv9mapl 
http://tinyurl.com/zo28oyq 
http://tinyurl.com/h4xttae 
 
Still, the Roman Catholic Church has an upper part of a skull among Andrew's putative relics at Amalfi (perhaps the head now in Patras was only one of his spares). Herewith some views of it taken when it was on display at Sant'Andrea della Valle in Rome in 2008 for the 800th anniversary of Andrew's translation to Amalfi: 
http://tinyurl.com/2ej6ktp 
http://tinyurl.com/269p9bl 
http://tinyurl.com/2cwc7rn 
http://tinyurl.com/2ce4een 
 
Andrew's right foot is said to be in the monastery of Agios Andreas on Kefalonia. Other relics believed to be his are in the skete of St. Andrew on Mt. Athos, a Russian foundation honoring one of that country's patron saints. Here's a view of a reliquary belonging to that monastery and said to contain Andrew's skull: 
http://serko.net/50/athos/KaryesandStAndrewsSkete/images/relicofstandrew.jpg 
Andrew the Polycephalous, perhaps. 
The Vatopedi monastery on Mt. Athos has what is described as a relic of Andrew's right hand: 
http://tinyurl.com/2wwqx5r 
 
The cathedral of Trier has a later tenth-century portable altar (ca. 980) made for and containing what is said to be the sole of one of Andrew's sandals: 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/54629101@N04/5059266087 
 
From at least 1250 until 1979, when they were transferred to Andrew's church at Patras, wood fragments believed to be relics of his cross were preserved in the church of St. Victor at Marseille. Herewith some views of them on display in St. Petersburg during a tour in 2013 in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus: 
http://www.diakonima.gr/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/stauros-ag.Andrea.jpg 
http://eu.greekreporter.com/files/photo_1373730265670-1-HD.jpg 
http://www.pravoslavie.ru/sas/image/101284/128410.p.jpg?rnd=460961 
 
Today (30. November) is in many churches the feast day of St. Andrew the Apostle. 
 
 
Supplementing Gordon Plumb's two posts of yesterday, herewith some links to other period-pertinent images of St. Andrew the Protoclete: 
 
a) as depicted (bottom, to St. Peter's left) in the later fifth-century mosaic ceiling (betw. 451 and 475) of the Neonian Baptistery / Orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna (for best results, click to expand the image): 
http://tinyurl.com/gtb7y25 
Detail view: 
http://farm8.static.flickr.com/7542/15918669025_ae85df7970.jpg 
 
b) as depicted (lower register, second from right) in the very late fifth- or early sixth-century mosaics of the Cappella Arcivescovile in Ravenna: 
http://tinyurl.com/httslbx 
Detail view: 
http://tinyurl.com/hf3bn9p 
  
c) as depicted (at top in right margin; below: St. Matthew, then St. Paul) among the roundels of apostles framing the Theotokos and Christ Child in a sixth-century tapestry icon from Egypt in the Cleveland Museum of Art:  
http://www.clevelandart.org/art/1967.144# 
Detail view: 
http://tinyurl.com/p6xv68p 
 
d) as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (betw. 527 and 548) on the triumphal arch of Ravenna's basilica di San Vitale (photograph courtesy of Genevra Kornbluth): 
http://www.kornbluthphoto.com/images/VitaleChancelArch4.jpg 
 
e) as depicted in an early eighth-century fresco (betw. 705 and 707) in Rome's chiesa di Santa Maria Antiqua (grayscale view): 
http://www.icon-art.info/masterpiece.php?lng=en&mst_id=1894 
 
f) as twice depicted (before the cross; martyrdom) in an historiated initial "M" in the mid-ninth-century Drogo Sacramentary (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 9428, fol. 98v): 
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b60000332/f206.item.zoom 
 
g) as portrayed (at far right) on a later tenth-century ivory reliquary casket, probably from Constantinople, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (click on the image to enlarge): 
http://tinyurl.com/ptdadhq 
 
h) as depicted (martyrdom) in the late tenth- or very early eleventh-century so-called Menologion of Basil II (Città del Vaticano, BAV, cod. Vat. gr. 1613, p. 215): 
http://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Vat.gr.1613/0237 
http://tinyurl.com/zza6x2h 
 
i) as depicted (three images) in the eleventh-century frescoes of the chiesa collegiata di San Orso in Aosta: 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3375394732/ 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3375397470/ 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3374574641/ 
 
j) as depicted in an early eleventh-century sacramentary at Rouen (ca. 1020; Rouen, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 274, fol. 164v): 
http://tinyurl.com/y8rsfuf 
 
k) as depicted in the earlier eleventh-century mosaics (restored between 1953 and 1962) in the narthex of the church of the Theotokos in the monastery of Hosios Loukas near Distomo in Phokis: 
http://tinyurl.com/netu8m7 
 
l) as depicted (martyrdom) in an historiated initial "T" in a later eleventh-century Office lectionary for the cathedral of Reims (before 1096; Reims, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 295, fol. 215r): 
http://tinyurl.com/yg4zarg 
 
m) as depicted in a twelfth-century menologion in the Docheiariou monastery on Mt. Athos (cod. 5, fol. 306r) 
http://pemptousia.com/files/2013/11/Andrei-Athos-s12-IN.jpg 
 
n) as portrayed in a mid- or later twelfth-century statue (probably later 1140s; _aliter_, 1170s; from the destroyed tomb of St. Lazarus in the latter's collegiate church in Autun) in the Musée Rolin in Autun: 
http://www.wga.hu/art/m/master/yunk_fr/yunk_fr1a/04andrew.jpg 
 
o) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Peter) as depicted  in the mid-twelfth-century mosaics (betw. 1146 and 1151) of the chiesa di Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (a.k.a. chiesa della Martorana) in Palermo: 
http://tinyurl.com/j597wwt 
 
p) as portrayed (at center; at left, St. Paul; at right, St. James) in a later twelfth-century relief fragment (ca. 1150-1170) of Catalan origin in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City (MO): 
http://tinyurl.com/k5m4ft5 
 
q) as portrayed (second from left) by Gruamonte (attrib.) in the later twelfth-century relief of Jesus and the Apostles (ca. 1167) over the main entrance to Pistoia's chiesa di San Bartolomeo in Pantano: 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/roger_joseph/9341895694/ 
A closer view (Andrew now at far left): 
http://tinyurl.com/qafv6yg 
 
r) as portrayed in relief (fourth from right; betw. Sts. Peter and James) by Anselmo da Campione in his Last Supper panel on the later twelfth-century parapet (_pontile_; ca. 1170-1180) in the cattedrale di San Geminiano in Modena: 
http://tinyurl.com/nqu8lef 
 
s) as portrayed in relief (at right; at left, St. Paul) on the late twelfth-century portal (betw. 1180 and 1190) of the basilique primatiale Saint-Trophime in Arles:  
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Portail-Saint-Trophime232.jpg 
 
t) as depicted (martyrdom) in one of four panels of a full-page illumination in the late twelfth-century so-called Bible of Saint Bertin (ca. 1190-1200; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 5, fol. 30v, sc. 2B): 
http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f5%3A030v_min_b2 
 
u) as depicted (at left in the panel at upper right) in the late twelfth- or very early thirteenth-century wooden altar frontal of Baltarga in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya in Barcelona:  
http://www.museunacional.cat/sites/default/files/015804-000.JPG 
 
v) as depicted (at right, upper register) in the very late twelfth- or very early thirteenth-century apse mosaic in Rome's basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura: 
http://tinyurl.com/hsx5gkh 
 
w) as portrayed in relief (martyrdom) by a follower of Benedetto Antelami in the earlier thirteenth-century tympanum sculpture (ca. 1220-1225) of the main portal of the basilica di Sant'Andrea in Vercelli: 
http://tinyurl.com/zesdjhq 
Detail view: 
http://tinyurl.com/gm6ycwe 
 
x) as depicted (martyrdom) in an historiated initial "D" in an earlier thirteenth-century collection of saint's lives in their French-language translation by Wauchier de Denain (ca. 1226-1250; London, BL, Royal 20 D VI, fol. 185r): 
http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=42737 
 
y) as depicted (martyrdom) in an earlier thirteenth-century psalter from Hildesheim (ca. 1230-1240; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition latine 3102, fol. 6v): 
http://tinyurl.com/ygjj2cn 
 
z) as depicted on an earlier or mid-thirteenth-century map of the Mediterranean (ca. 1234-1266; Lyon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 175, sheet 9): 
http://tinyurl.com/ylf7lwr 
 
aa) as depicted (at left; at right, St. John the Evangelist) in the mid-thirteenth-century Carrow Psalter (Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Walters Ms. W.34, fol. 11v): 
http://tinyurl.com/ofwq5he 
 
bb) as portrayed in a silver gilt statuette on the later thirteenth-century copper gilt châsse of St. Remaclus (completed betw. 1263 and 1268) in the église Saint-Sébastien in Stavelot: 
http://balat.kikirpa.be/photo.php?path=Z007680&objnr=10074187&lang=en-GB&nr=1 
Detail view: 
http://balat.kikirpa.be/photo.php?path=Z007687&objnr=10074187&lang=en-GB&nr=1 
 
cc) as depicted (martyrdom) in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the _Legenda aurea_ (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 1r): 
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/ds/huntington/images//000851A.jpg 
 
dd) as depicted in a late thirteenth-century Book of Hours for the Use of Thérouanne (ca. 1280-1290; Marseille, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 111, fol. 63v): 
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht4/IRHT_077057-p.jpg 
 
ee) as depicted (martyrdom) in the late thirteenth-century Livre d'images de Madame Marie (ca. 1285-1290; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 16251, fol. 65v): 
http://tinyurl.com/c6vbkyc 
 
ff) as depicted in the late thirteenth- or very early fourteenth-century frescoes  (ca. 1290-1305) attributed to Manuel Panselinos in the Protaton church on Mt. Athos: 
http://tinyurl.com/jnttwfk 
 
gg) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Peter) by Duccio di Buoninsegna in an early fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1308-1311) in the National Gallery of Art in Washington: 
http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.282.html 
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Duccio_di_Buoninsegna_036.jpg 
 
hh) as depicted (bas-de-page; martyrdom) in the early fourteenth-century Queen Mary Psalter (ca. 1310-1320; London, BL, Royal MS 2 B VII, fol. 286r): 
http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=royal_ms_2_b_vii_f286r 
 
ii) as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. ca. 1313 and 1320) by Michael Astrapas and Eutychios in the King's Church (dedicated to Sts. Joachim and Anne) at the Studenica monastery near Kraljevo (Raška dist.) in Serbia: 
http://tinyurl.com/yzh4h93 
 
jj) as depicted (panel at upper right; martyrdom) in an earlier fourteenth-century pictorial menologion from Thessaloniki (betw. 1322 and 1340; Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Gr. th. f. 1, fol. 19r): 
http://image.ox.ac.uk/images/bodleian/msgrthf1/19r.jpg 
 
kk) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1326) by Simone Martini in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York: 
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/simone/4altars/5agostin/8andrew.jpg 
 
ll) as depicted (martyrdom) in an earlier fourteenth-century French-language legendary of Parisian origin with illuminations attributed to the Fauvel Master (ca. 1327; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 106r): 
http://tinyurl.com/hrhzapl 
 
mm) as depicted (martyrdom) in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. 1335 and 1350) in the narthex of the church of the Holy Ascension in the Visoki Dečani monastery near Peć in, depending upon one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija: 
http://tinyurl.com/yfwotnx 
 
nn) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Cecilia) in a panel of an earlier fourteenth-century glass window (ca. 1340) in the entrance hall -- an enclosed porch -- of the Basilika Mariä Himmelfahrt at Gurk (Kärnten): 
http://www.burgenseite.com/glas/gurk_glas_8.jpg 
 
oo) as twice depicted in a mid- to later fourteenth-century breviary for the Use of Paris ("Breviary of Charles V"; betw. 1347 and 1380; Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 1052): 
1) at left, fishing with St. Peter (fol. 285r): 
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84525491/f579.image.zoom 
2) martyrdom (fol. 285v): 
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84525491/f580.image.zoom 
 
pp) as depicted (martyrdom) in a mid-fourteenth-century copy, from the workshop of Richard and Jeanne de Montbaston, of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1348; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 241, fol. 36v): 
http://tinyurl.com/blegjzq 
 
qq) as depicted in the later fourteenth-century frescoes (1360s and 1370s; restored in 1968-1970) in the church of St. Demetrius in Marko's Monastery at Markova Sušica: 
http://tinyurl.com/ox2kn3t 
 
rr) as depicted in the late fourteenth-century frescoes (1389; restored in the early 1970s) in the monastery church of St. Andrew at Matka in Skopje's municipality of Karpoš: 
http://tinyurl.com/qcuez7e 
Detail view: 
http://tinyurl.com/qc7eubl 
 
ss) as depicted (upper register at right) by Taddeo di Bartolo in a late fourteenth-century panel painting (1395) in the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest: 
http://www.wga.hu/art/t/taddeo/virgin.jpg 
 
tt) as depicted in semi-grisaille (martyrdom) in a late fourteenth-century copy of part of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1396; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 313, fol. 86r): 
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84557843/f177.image.zoom 
 
uu) as depicted in a late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century copy of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Rennes, Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, ms. 266, fol. 9r): 
http://tinyurl.com/gruzabn 
 
vv) as depicted (betw. St. Peter and St. James major) on the fifteenth-century rood screen in Gooderstone Church in Gooderstone (Norfolk): 
http://tinyurl.com/bwffwxk 
 
ww) as depicted by Andrei Rublev in an early fifteenth-century panel painting (1408; for the Assumption cathedral in Vladimir) in the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow: 
http://www.belygorod.ru/img2/Ikona/Used/155ublev_andrey_pervozvaniy.jpg 
 
xx) as depicted (at center in this view, at the last supper; at left, St. Thomas; at right, St. Bartholomew) in a mid-fifteenth-century fresco (1450, attrib. to Cristoforo da Seregno) in the chiesa di San Bernardo in Monte Carasso (canton Ticino): 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3030969009/ 
 
yy) as depicted (martyrdom) by Jean Fouquet on a leaf of his now dismembered mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Étienne Chevalier (1450s; this leaf in the Musée Condé, Chantilly [Oise]): 
http://tinyurl.com/7vrnpgd 
 
zz) as portrayed in relief on a mid- or later fifteenth-century polychromed limestone retable of Burgundian origin (ca. 1450-1500) in the Burrell Collection in Glasgow: 
http://tinyurl.com/zcq48le 
 
aaa) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Peter) by Miguel Ximénez and workshop in panels of his and Martín Bernad's late fifteenth-century altarpiece of the Holy Cross (completed, 1487) for the parish church of Blesa (Teruel) and now, after dismemberment, mostly in the Museo de Zaragoza: 
http://tinyurl.com/z26x5au 
Detail view (Andrew): 
http://tinyurl.com/gty6s2l 
 
bbb) as depicted (martyrdom) by Carlo Bracceso in a late fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1490) in the Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro in Venice: 
http://www.wga.hu/art/b/braccesc/standrew.jpg 
 
ccc) as portrayed in relief in the early sixteenth-century choir stalls (betw. 1501 and 1507) in the St. Martinskirche in the city of Memmingen in Bavarian Swabia: 
http://tinyurl.com/z2b3kf2 
Another view, more clearly showing him between two trunks of a branching tree: 
http://tinyurl.com/jcflfps 
 
ddd) as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger in an earlier sixteenth-century pen-and-ink design for a stained glass window (ca. 1519-1521) in the Kunstmuseum Basel: 
http://tinyurl.com/c9gdjz6 
 
eee) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Thomas) in the earlier sixteenth-century frescoes (1522) of Skive Kirke in Skive (Midtjylland): 
http://tinyurl.com/p7jmu5l 
  
Best, 
John Dillon 
 
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