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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  June 2016

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION June 2016

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Subject:

Re: FEAST - A Saint for the Day (June 30): St. Martial of Limoges

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 30 Jun 2016 21:52:50 +0000

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Further period-pertinent images of St. Martial of Limoges:

a) as depicted in an earlier eleventh-century troper, proser, processional, and tonary from the abbey of St. Martial at Limoges (ca. 1001-1025; Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 1121, fol. 28v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8432272p/f64.item.r=1121.langPT.zoom

b) as depicted (at left, founding the cathedral of Poitiers) in a late twelfth-century glass window panel, from the cathédrale Saint-Pierre in Poitiers, in the Cloisters Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York:
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/466593

c) as depicted (scenes) by Matteo Giovannetti in his mid-fourteenth-century frescoes (1344-1345) in the chapelle St.-Martial in the Palace of the Popes in Avignon:
1) between his parents, listening to Jesus preach (upper register, fourth from right); his baptism by St. Peter (lower register):
http://tinyurl.com/z4grggz
2) receiving his staff from St. Peter:
http://tinyurl.com/j6sdeu5
3) exorcising demons from the daughter of the count of Tulle (scene at right); healing the paralyzed count of Bordeaux (scene at left):
http://tinyurl.com/zpguhre
4) resurrecting the son of Nerva:
http://tinyurl.com/hatwjeq

Best again,
John Dillon

________________________________________
From: medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]> on behalf of John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: Thursday, June 30, 2016 2:40:18 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: [M-R] FEAST - A Saint for the Day (June 30): St. Martial of Limoges

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Martial (also, esp. in Spanish, Marcial; in Latin, Martialis and Marcialis) is the traditional protobishop of Limoges.  Our first written evidence of his existence comes from St. Gregory of Tours in the later sixth century.  According to Gregory (_Historia Francorum_, 1. 30), Martial was one of a group of missionary bishops sent to Gaul from Rome in the reign of Decius (249-251) that also included Sts. Saturninus of Toulouse, Trophimus of Arles, and Dionysius (Denys) of Paris; his appointed see was Limoges and he died a confessor.

In the late ninth or early tenth century and again toward the beginning of the eleventh century Martial received legendary Vitae making him a relative both of St. Peter and of St. Stephen protomartyr who had been present at various lifetime miracles of Christ.  After the Ascension Martial followed Peter to Antioch on the Orontes where he met two priests of eastern origin, Sts. Alpinianus and Austriclinianus, who then traveled with him to Rome.  There Peter sent him and his companions to evangelize in Gaul.  Arriving at Limoges, Martial converted the population.  One of those converted was a young virgin named Valeria who was betrothed to the duke of Aquitaine and who now made a vow of chastity.  The enraged duke had Valeria decapitated; Martial erected a martyrial church over her tomb.  When Martial died he was buried by his successor, bishop Aurelian.  Thus far the Vitae.  Martial's extramural tomb became a cult site for pilgrims as well as townspeople.  In the early Middle Ages the abbey of Saint-Martial arose on the site.

The eleventh-century historian and forger Adémar of Chabannes was a major proponent of Martial's first-century apostolicity.  Richard Landes, whose book on Adémar requires no introduction to this list, has a brief and vividly written overview here:
http://www.mille.org/people/rlpages/ademar-story.html

Today is Martial's feast day in the église saint-Michel-des-Lions in Limoges (which has what are believed to be important relics of St. Martial) and in other churches dedicated to him.  It is also his day of commemoration in the Roman Martyrology.


Some period-pertinent images of St. Martial of Limoges:

a) as depicted (long side at lower right) on a mid-twelfth-century Limousin châsse, from the church of Saint-Martial in Champagnat (Creuse), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York:
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_17.190.685.jpg

b) as depicted in one of four panels of a full-page illumination in the late twelfth-century so-called Bible of Saint Bertin (ca. 1190-1200; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 5, fol. 38v, sc. 2A):
http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f5%3A038v_min_a2

c) as depicted (three scenes; the fourth, at lower left, is the martyrdom of St. Valeria) in a later thirteenth-century French-language legendary (Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 23686, fol. 59v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8446925z/f120.item.zoom

d) as depicted (consecrating St. Valeria) in an earlier fourteenth-century copy of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (ca. 1326-1350; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 185, fol. 233v):
http://tinyurl.com/yhqogug

e) as depicted (his baptism by St. Peter in Christ's presence) in an earlier fourteenth-century French-language legendary of Parisian origin with illuminations attributed to the Fauvel Master (ca. 1327; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 131r)
http://tinyurl.com/2dlembp

f) as twice depicted by Mahiet and workshop in an earlier fourteenth-century copy of Books 9-16 of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (ca. 1335; Paris, BnF, ms. Arsenal 5080, fols. 240r):
1) at center, receiving his staff from St. Peter; at right, St. Stephen protomartyr (fol. 73v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b7100627v/f152.item.zoom
2) second from left, saving the son of the count of Poitiers from devils (fol. 74r):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b7100627v/f153.item.zoom

g) as depicted (exorcising a demon from the daughter of the count of Tulle) in the early fifteenth-century Châteauroux Breviary (ca. 1414; Use of Paris; Châteauroux, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 2, fol. 218v):
http://tinyurl.com/249ebv5

h) as depicted (scenes) in a later fifteenth-century copy of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1463; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 50, fol. 324r):
http://tinyurl.com/232ke8r

i) as depicted (receiving a loaf from Jesus at the Multiplication of the Loaves) in a late fifteenth-century breviary for the Use of Langres (after 1481; Chaumont, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 33, fol. 291v):
http://tinyurl.com/2ek4p38

Best,
John Dillon
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