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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  May 2016

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION May 2016

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Subject:

FEAST - A Saint for the Day (May 20): St. Bernardino of Siena

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 20 May 2016 10:07:42 +0000

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Bernardino (in English sometimes Bernardine) was born in 1380 at Massa Marittima where his father was the city's governor for the Republic of Siena.  Orphaned while still a child, he was raised by an aunt in an atmosphere of considerable piety.  In his early twenties he joined the Observant branch of the Franciscans, was ordained priest, and began his lifelong career as a prolific and enormously popular preacher.  In the course of this activity Bernardino fostered devotion to the Holy Name of Jesus and would hold up a placard visibly bearing the letters IHS.  At a sermon's conclusion he would have the placard passed among the audience for veneration, the latter usually expressed through osculation.  He also organized bonfires of the vanities (a form of renunciation now firmly associated with the name of Savonarola).

Bernardino served as vicar general of the Observant Franciscans from 1438 to 1442.  He died on this day in 1444 at the Franciscan convent at L'Aquila (AQ) in Abruzzo.  He has nearly posthumous Vitae by Barnabas of Siena (BHL 1188), Leonard of Siena (BHL 1188b), the humanist Maffeo Vegio (BHL 1189), and St. John of Capestrano (BHL 1190).  Today is Bernardino's feast day in the general Roman Calendar.  He was canonized in 1450.  In 1454 work began on today's much rebuilt basilica di San Bernardino in L'Aquila, into which the saint's remains were formally translated in 1472.  They now repose there in a tomb from 1517:
http://www.jemolo.com/alta/imgae0029.jpg
http://www.inmontagnaonline.com/laquila2009/laquilalynnanderson1148l.htm


Some period-pertinent images of St. Bernardino of Siena (many of these share a particular iconography going back to the mid-fifteenth-century circulation of his death mask through Franciscan houses; some show mitres representing sees he is said to have refused):

a) as depicted (with a seemingly later nimbus) in an earlier fifteenth-century copy of his _De vita Christiana_ (1437; Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Canon. Misc. 312, fol. 44r):
http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet/detail/ODLodl~1~1~1770~101799

b) as depicted (with the rays of a _beatus_) by Sassetta in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (betw. 1444 and 1450) in the Collezione Salini in the castello di Gallico in Asciano (_comune_; SI) in Tuscany:
http://tinyurl.com/zf9j2hj

c) as depicted (at right, flanking the BVM and Christ Child; at left, St. Francis of Assisi) by Benozzo Gozzoli in a mid-fifteenth-century fresco (1450) in the pieve di San Fortunato at Montefalco (PG) in Umbria:
http://www.museobenozzogozzoli.it/filecomuni/38013_001.jpg
Detail view:
http://www.wga.hu/art/g/gozzoli/1early/03fortu1.jpg

d) as depicted by Sano di Pietro in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (1450) in the Palazzo pubblico in Siena:
http://www.sienaguidavirtuale.it/mm/132.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/hgyrmhv

e) as depicted by Sano di Pietro in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (1450) in the Pinacoteca nazionale di Siena:
http://tinyurl.com/zl5qula

f) as depicted by Vecchietta in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1450-1460) in the chiesa di Sant'Angelo in Colle in Montalcino (SI) in Tuscany:
http://tinyurl.com/j6wbhlp

g) as depicted in a mid- or later fifteenth-century fresco (?ca. 1450-1475) in the chiesa di San Michele Arcangelo at Eggi (PG) in Umbria:
http://www.amicidieggi.it/gfx/monumenti_03.jpg

h) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Roch) in a mid- or later fifteenth-century fresco (?ca. 1450-1480), attributed to the workshop of Giovanni de Campo, in the chiesa dei Santi Nazzaro e Celso in Sologno, a _frazione_ of Caltignaga (NO) in Piedmont:
http://tinyurl.com/zhtbqkc

i) as twice portrayed by Agostino di Duccio in his mid- to later fifteenth-century reliefs (ca. 1459-1461) on the facade of the oratorio di San Bernardino da Siena in Perugia:
1) full-length-portrait:
http://tinyurl.com/hnprnc4
2) leading a bonfire of the vanities (panel at center):
http://tinyurl.com/25qelo

j) as portrayed by Vecchietta in a later fifteenth-century statue (ca. 1460-1464) in the cappella Eroli in the Museo nazionale del Bargello in Florence:
http://www.narnia.it/firvecchiettab.jpg
https://theparallelvision.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/fig-4.jpg

k) as depicted by Taddeo Crivelli in the later fifteenth-century Gualenghi-d'Este Hours (ca. 1469; Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig IX 13, fol. 195v):
http://tinyurl.com/jtc84m5

l) as depicted by Dario di Giovanni in a later fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1470) in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA:
http://tinyurl.com/zrbvege

m) as depicted (preaching) by Francesco di Giorgio Martini in a later fifteenth-century detached illumination (ca. 1470-1475) in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York:
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/461450

n) as depicted (scenes) by Pinturicchio, Pietro Perugino, Piermatteo dĺAmelia, and perhaps others in a series of eight later fifteenth-century panel paintings (ca. 1473) in the chiesa di San Francesco al Prato in Perugia:
1) healing the girl who suffered from an ulcer:
http://tinyurl.com/jhd6yqh
2) a miracle concerning a baby:
http://tinyurl.com/zgnhq9m
3) freeing a prisoner (post-mortem apparition):
http://tinyurl.com/gnrhp4j
4) healing a blind man (post-mortem apparition):
http://tinyurl.com/j8bt28m
5) restoring a man found dead:
http://tinyurl.com/gly89zq
6) healing a man struck by an oar (post-mortem apparition):
http://tinyurl.com/zm87oaa
7) healing a man injured in an assault:
http://tinyurl.com/h6zrfe2
8) healing a man trampled by a bull:
http://tinyurl.com/zws35pk

o) as depicted (at far left; next to him, St. Thomas Aquinas) by Francesco di Giorgio Martini in a later fifteenth-century panel painting (1475; The Adoration of the Infant) in the Pinacoteca nazionale di Siena:
http://tinyurl.com/jehjqv5

p) as depicted (detail view) in a later fifteenth-century fresco (1478) in the basilica cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta in Nard˛ (LE) in Apulia:
http://tinyurl.com/zvva4v6

q) as depicted (at left; at right, Simon of Trent) in a late fifteenth-century fresco (1481) in the chiesa di San Ponziano in Spoleto:
http://tinyurl.com/hrm7ro7
Simon of Trent (d. 1475; shown here as a _beatus_) was a child whose death was popularly ascribed, in a form of blood libel, to members of Trent's Jewish community who supposedly had tortured the little boy before dispatching him in a ritual murder.  Arrests, interrogation under torture, and the judicial murder of at least fifteen Jews followed.  Simon's collocation with Bernardino recalls the latter's attacks on Jews in his sermons as an enemy within.

r) as depicted (bottom register at right) by Bartolomeo Caporali on a late fifteenth-century processional banner of the Madonna della Misericordia (1482) in the Pinacoteca e Museo di San Francesco in Montone (PG) in Umbria:
http://tinyurl.com/jzjhd49

s) as depicted (at center; in glory) by Pinturicchio in a late fifteenth-century fresco (ca. 1484-1486) in the capppella Bufalini of Rome's basilica di Santa Maria in Ara Coeli:
http://tinyurl.com/gvs4fjz
Detail view:
http://tinyurl.com/jt7wvb2

t) as depicted by G. M. Spanzotti in a late fifteenth-century fresco (ca. 1486-91) in the church of San Bernardino in Ivrea, now part of the CittÓ Metropolitana di Torino:
http://tinyurl.com/3y9heg

u) as depicted (right margin) in a hand-colored woodcut in the Beloit College copy of Hartmann Schedel's late fifteenth-century _Weltchronik_ (_Nuremberg Chronicle_; 1493) at fol. CCXLVIIIr:
https://www.beloit.edu/nuremberg/book/6th_age/right_page/151%20%28Folio%20CCXLVIIIr%29.pdf

v) as depicted in an early sixteenth-century book of hours (ca. 1510; Use of Rome; Tours, BibliothŔque municipale, ms. 2104, fol. 172v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht2/IRHT_051226-p.jpg

w) as depicted by an unidentified Spanish master in an earlier sixteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1510-1530) in the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen:
http://tinyurl.com/zws42sj

Best,
John Dillon
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