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CCP4BB  June 2015

CCP4BB June 2015

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Subject:

Re: [Fwd: Re: [ccp4bb] FW: New ligand 3-letter code (help-7071)]

From:

Miri Hirshberg <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Miri Hirshberg <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 24 Jun 2015 15:14:32 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (738 lines)

Good afternoon both,

there is also the issue of inconsistency of presentation.

For example, Lysine, that is L-Lysine (LYS) is protonated on the side
chain nitrogen (NZ), whiles as D-lysine (DLY) is not.

i.e. you have NZ(HZ1, HZ2) for DLY, and NZ(HZ1, HZ2, HZ3) for LYS

Miri

On Wed, 2015-06-24 at 13:35 +0100, Ian Tickle wrote:
> Hi Ben
> 
> 
> From discussions we have had with PDBe they consider tautomers to be
> different compounds (just as stereoisomers would be considered to be
> different compounds), since they require different restraint
> dictionaries, so each tautomer that was observed would require a
> unique 3-lettter code.  Of course you still have to have evidence
> (e.g. from the H-bonding pattern) that what you are really seeing are
> different tautomers, but that's a different question.
> 
> 
> Cheers
> 
> 
> -- Ian
> 
> 
> 
> On 24 June 2015 at 12:50, Ben Bax <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>         Another major problem with the PDB is that it does not seem to
>         believe in the existence of different tautomers or protonation
>         states.
>          
>         For example the ATP analogue AMPPNP can have the nitrogen
>         between the beta and gamma phosphates protonated (-P-NH-P) or
>         unprotonated (P-N=P), and there are well documented examples
>         of both tautomers in the PDB (NH being a hydrogen bond donor
>         and N a hydrogen bond acceptor). 
>         If you look in the CSD you can see that the protonation state
>         of the nitrogen changes the geometry of the P-N-P bond.
>          
>         However, as I understand it, the PDB considers all tautomeric
>         (and protonated) forms of AMPPNP the same. When I tried to
>         deposit a specific AMPPNP tautomer in 2013, they would not
>         accept it. The PDB also seems to believe, as I understand it,
>         that the overall charge on AMPPNP is zero and that the
>         phosphates do not carry negative charge.
>          
>          
>         Ben Bax
>         Senior Scientific Investigator
>         BioMolecular Sciences UK
>         RD Platform Technology & Science
>          
>         GSK
>         Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, SG1
>         2NY, UK
>         Email   [log in to unmask]
>         Mobile  +44 (0) 7912 600604
>         Tel     +44 (0) 1438 55 1156
>          
>         gsk.com  | Twitter  |  YouTube  |  Facebook  |  Flickr
>          
>         
>          
>          
>          
>          
>          
>          
>          
>          
>          
>         -----Original Message-----
>         From: CCP4 bulletin board [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On
>         Behalf Of Martyn Symmons
>         Sent: 22 June 2015 23:39
>         To: [log in to unmask]
>         Subject: Re: [ccp4bb] [Fwd: Re: [ccp4bb] FW: New ligand
>         3-letter code (help-7071)]
>          
>         Well the problem is there is a lot more to a ligand than PDB
>         coordinates - little things like bond orders... In addition
>         people can publish ligands with atoms for which they have no
>         density - so zero-occupancy is allowed too. So who should get
>         priority - the group who publishes a ligand first, or the ones
>         who actually have density for all the atoms?
>          
>         These sorts of complications mean we all benefit from
>         peer-review of the structure - that is why we put things on
>         hold. And authors should have a chance to change their ligand
>         definition based on reviewers'
>         comments - just as they are allowed to improve the PDB
>         coordinates. So it is a worry for them that the PDB might
>         'publish' the ligand aspect of  their work before they have
>         completed the peer-review process.
>          
>         Maybe you don't believe is peer-review - in reply to which I'd
>         paraphrase what people say about democracy - it's pretty bad
>         but better than the alternatives.
>          
>         But to return to the point I made: what really is the problem
>         with maintaining and modifying _separate_ definitions with
>         authors'
>         _separate_ deposited coordinates (and bond orders) while
>         structures are on hold and being reviewed? Journals manage to
>         keep all those submitted papers separate in their databases.
>          
>         cheers
>         M.
>          
>         On Mon, Jun 22, 2015 at 3:12 AM, Edward A. Berry
>         <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>         >>   I can't imagine a journal doing that can you?  When I
>         work on my 
>         >> supplementary material in a paper I don't expect that the
>         journal 
>         >> will take a bit out and publish it separately to support
>         the work of 
>         >> my competitors. Not out of spite that I was beaten - but
>         because I 
>         >> don't want to take the responsibility for checking their
>         science for them!
>         >
>         >
>         > I don't see the problem here. What about the dozens of
>         authors who 
>         > will benefit from using your ligand in their structure
>         _after_ your 
>         > structure comes out? You don't take responsibility for
>         checking their 
>         > science. Every author gets a copy of his final structure to
>         check 
>         > before it is released and each is responsible for his own.
>         > The only difference here is whether the competitor got to
>         use it 
>         > first, (which might sting a bit) or only after you had
>         already made it 
>         > your own with the first structure.
>         >
>         > I guess the ligand database is the responsibility of the
>         pdb, but they 
>         > depend on first depositors to help set up each ligand, so it
>         is not 
>         > surprising if the type model has coordinates from the first 
>         > depositor's structure (although it would be convenient if
>         they were 
>         > all moved to c.o.m. at 0,0,0). When another group publishes
>         a 
>         > structure with the ligand, they will not be publishing the
>         first 
>         > depositor's coordinates because the ligand will be moved to
>         its 
>         > position in their structure and refined against their data,
>         probably 
>         > with somewhat different restraints.
>         >
>         > If the ligand is a top secret novel drug lead that your
>         company is 
>         > developing I guess it would come as a shock to find someone
>         else has 
>         > already deposited it, and it might be good to hasten not
>         the 
>         > publication but protecting of the compound with a patent!
>         >
>         > Although Miriam says a new 3-letter code is generated when
>         no match is 
>         > found, I believe the depositor's code will be used if it is
>         available, 
>         > at least one of mine was last year, so there is some use for
>         Nigel's 
>         > utility if you want to stamp your new compound with a
>         rememberable name.
>         >
>         > eab
>         >
>         >
>         > On 06/21/2015 06:33 PM, Martyn Symmons wrote:
>         >>
>         >> Miri raises important points about issues in the PDB
>         Chemical 
>         >> Component Dictionary - I think part of the problem is that
>         this is 
>         >> published completely separately from the actual PDB - so
>         for example 
>         >> I don't think we have an archive of the CCD for comparison
>         alongside 
>         >> the PDB snapshots? This makes it difficult to follow the
>         convoluted 
>         >> track of particular ligands through the PDB's many,many
>         changes to 
>         >> small molecule definitions.
>         >>
>         >> But following discussion with other contributors offline I
>         want to 
>         >> make it clear what is my understanding of the ZA3
>         (2Y2I /2Y59) case:
>         >>
>         >> I am clear there was no unethical behaviour by either group
>         in the 
>         >> course of their work on these structures and the
>         publication of them.
>         >>
>         >> The problem I am highlighting is that the PDB don't
>         understand 
>         >> publishing ethics - what happened in ZA3 was that they
>         published a 
>         >> little bit of one group's work to support the work of
>         someone who was 
>         >> scooping them!
>         >>
>         >>   I can't imagine a journal doing that can you?  When I
>         work on my 
>         >> supplementary material in a paper I don't expect that the
>         journal 
>         >> will take a bit out and publish it separately to support
>         the work of 
>         >> my competitors. Not out of spite that I was beaten - but
>         because I 
>         >> don't want to take the responsibility for checking their
>         science for them!
>         >>
>         >> All the best
>         >>    Martyn
>         >>
>         >> Cambridge
>         >>
>         >> On Sun, Jun 21, 2015 at 7:01 PM, Miri Hirshberg 
>         >> <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>         >>>
>         >>> Sun., June 21st 2015
>         >>>
>         >>> Good evening,
>         >>>
>         >>> adding several general points to the thread.
>         >>>
>         >>> (1) Fundamentally PDB unlike other chemical databases
>         insists that 
>         >>> all equal structures should have the same 3-letter code
>         and the same 
>         >>> atom names - obviously for amino acids and say ATP.
>         >>>
>         >>>   (1.1) Needless to say there are endless examples in the
>         PDB of two 
>         >>> ligands differ by let say one hydroxyl group, where
>         equivalent atoms 
>         >>> in the two ligands having totally different names.
>         >>>
>         >>> (2) When a structure is deposited with a ligand, the
>         ligand is first 
>         >>> compared against PDB chem_comp database (CCD) and against
>         the 
>         >>> on-hold chem_comp (CCD) (naturally the latter is not
>         publicly 
>         >>> available), and only if no-match can be found a new
>         three-letter 
>         >>> code  is generated and assigned.
>         >>>
>         >>> If not, then this is a mistake in annotation and should
>         not happen.
>         >>>
>         >>> (3) Exception to the above take several different
>         flavours. This
>         >>> include:
>         >>>
>         >>>   (3.1) When the same ligand is described in PDB as a
>         3-letters-code 
>         >>> and as well as a combination of two different
>         3-letters-code ligands.
>         >>> An example out of many is phosphoserine. The 3-letter-code
>         in PDB 
>         >>> CCD is SEP which is used in 704 PDB entries (RCSB
>         counting 
>         >>> 21-June-2015). But in the PDB entry 3uw2 the phosphoserine
>         109A is 
>         >>> described as a combination of SER and the inorganic
>         phosphate PO4 !!!
>         >>> (a side point: note the inorganic PO4 became organic upon
>         this 
>         >>> linkage - a PDB chemical conundrum!!).
>         >>>
>         >>>   (3.2) CCDC does not make any attempt to standardise atom
>         names nor 
>         >>> to match same structures to have equal atom names -
>         original author 
>         >>> atom names are kept so that amino acids may have bizarre
>         atom names 
>         >>> and where required symmetry atom names are generated -
>         this is rare 
>         >>> in the PDB but not unknown, and the PDB is poor at
>         completing 
>         >>> atom/ligand names where symmetry is required and in fact
>         often is 
>         >>> not completed in any chemical reasonable sense as this
>         would require changes in occupancy.
>         >>>
>         >>> The simplest case is in racemic PDB entries where the
>         symmetry 
>         >>> generated structure for say L-ALA should be the D-version
>         DAL, but 
>         >>> PDB as is, has not coped with it, as it would require two
>         sets of 
>         >>> coordinates each at say 1/2 occupancy (usually).
>         >>>
>         >>> One of several examples in the PDB archive is pdb entry
>         3e7r. The 
>         >>> Xray structure of Racemic Plectasin. The entry consists of
>         one 
>         >>> protein chain, in SPG P-1.
>         >>>
>         >>> In the manuscript
>         >>> http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pro.127/pdf
>         >>>
>         >>> Figure 3a, for example shows Crystal packing.
>         >>> (a) Centrosymmetric P-1 unit cell. The L-plectasin
>         molecule is shown 
>         >>> in blue and the D-plectasin molecule is in gold.
>         >>>
>         >>> But if you use the PDB entry, and the symmetry operator of
>         P-1 to 
>         >>> generate the two symmetry related mates in the unit cell
>         you will 
>         >>> get a chain with L- naming residues 
>         >>> GLY-PHE-GLY-CYS-ASN-GLY-PRO-........ etc representing D-
>         amino 
>         >>> acids.
>         >>> (GLY is a special case).
>         >>>
>         >>>   (3.3) There is also the problem in assigning a 3-letter
>         code where 
>         >>> the submission has obviously assigned the wrong chirality.
>         One 
>         >>> example is a where the sugar must be NAG but is assigned
>         NGA in a 
>         >>> glycopeptide where NGA is impossible - the PDB should have
>         assigned 
>         >>> NAG with a CAVEAT that the chirality is incorrect. Note, 
>         >>> re-refinement by other software will require a
>         bond-breakage.
>         >>> NGA is used in 90 entries (RCSB counting 21-June-2015)
>         >>>
>         >>> regards Miri
>         >>>
>         >>>
>         >>>
>         >>>
>         >>>>> From: Yong Wang <[log in to unmask]>
>         >>>>> Reply-to: Yong Wang <[log in to unmask]>
>         >>>>> To: [log in to unmask]
>         >>>>> Subject: Re: [ccp4bb] FW: New ligand 3-letter code
>         (help-7071)
>         >>>>> Date: Sat, 20 Jun 2015 18:36:34 +0000
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Sharing a ligand name should only be limited to having
>         the same 
>         >>>>> compound, i.e. same 2D structure or connectivity.  Each
>         deposition 
>         >>>>> should have its own 3D coordinates.  If a different
>         publication 
>         >>>>> gets your ligand 3D coordinates ("2Y59 actually embodies
>         the 
>         >>>>> atomic coordinates from the 2Y2I"), that looks to me an
>         oversight 
>         >>>>> by PDB.  It is hard to believe that PDB intended to use
>         the 3D 
>         >>>>> coordinates from one entry for the other, ligand or not.
>         In fact, 
>         >>>>> the restraints as described by the ligand dictionary
>         should also be kept separate as that reflects how the authors
>         refine their ligand.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Yong
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> -----Original Message-----
>         >>>>> From: CCP4 bulletin board [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
>         On Behalf 
>         >>>>> Of Martyn Symmons
>         >>>>> Sent: Friday, June 19, 2015 8:39 PM
>         >>>>> To: [log in to unmask]
>         >>>>> Subject: Re: [ccp4bb] FW: New ligand 3-letter code
>         (help-7071)
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> By oversimplifying the situation here the PDB does not
>         answer my 
>         >>>>> related point about competing crystallographers:
>         >>>>> My scenario:
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Group A deposits structure with new drug - gets their
>         three-letter 
>         >>>>> code for example ZA3  they then get to check the
>         coordinates and 
>         >>>>> chemical definition of this ligand.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> But suppose a little after that a competing group B
>         deposits their 
>         >>>>> structure with the same drug which they think is novel -
>         but no...
>         >>>>> they get assigned the now described ZA3 which has been
>         checked by 
>         >>>>> the other group.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>>   Then it is a race to see who gets to publish and
>         release first. 
>         >>>>> And if it is the second group B who wins then they are
>         publishing 
>         >>>>> the work of their A competitors - who have done the
>         depositing and 
>         >>>>> checking of the ligand  description.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>>   Sounds unlikely? Well, it actually happened in 2011
>         for my exact 
>         >>>>> example ZA3 - present in 2Y2I and in 2Y59 from competing
>         groups.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>>   From the dates in the mmcif it was 2Y2I depositors who
>         set up 
>         >>>>> and had a chance to review the description of ZA3
>         ligand. Only to 
>         >>>>> see it released a week before their crystal structure,
>         when their 
>         >>>>> ZA3 appeared to accompany competing 2Y59! It is amazing
>         that the 
>         >>>>> PDB did not spot this and arrange a suitable workaround.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Just to check:
>         >>>>> mmcif for ZA3 shows it was created for 2Y2I:
>         >>>>> ...
>         >>>>> _chem_comp.pdbx_model_coordinates_db_code        2Y2I
>         >>>>> ...
>         >>>>> But it was modified for release:
>         >>>>> ...
>         >>>>> _chem_comp.pdbx_modified_date
>         2011-07-22
>         >>>>> ...
>         >>>>> corresponding to the early 2011-07-27 release date of
>         the 
>         >>>>> competing
>         >>>>> structure: 2Y59 even though this PDB was  _deposited_
>         second.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> The ZA3 ligand definition released with 2Y59 actually
>         embodies the 
>         >>>>> atomic coordinates from the 2Y2I structure:
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> <mmcif>
>         >>>>> ZA3 O6   O6   O 0  1 N N N 8.279  7.165  40.963 0.311
>         -1.061 -0.920
>         >>>>> O6   ZA3 1
>         >>>>> ZA3 C5   C5   C 0  1 N N N 9.132  8.047  40.908 0.147
>         -0.205 -0.073
>         >>>>> C5   ZA3 2  ...
>         >>>>> <PDB 2Y2I>
>         >>>>> HETATM 3598  O6  ZA3 A1000       8.279   7.165  40.963
>         1.00 41.25
>         >>>>> O
>         >>>>> HETATM 3599  C5  ZA3 A1000       9.132   8.047  40.908
>         1.00 63.20
>         >>>>>        C ...
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Surely a better approach would be to allow both groups a
>         chance to 
>         >>>>> work through and sign off on independent ligand
>         descriptions?
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Then whoever releases first would release both a novel
>         structure 
>         >>>>> and the ligand definition _they_ deposited and checked.
>         Their 
>         >>>>> priority can then be asserted and the other group
>         contacted to ask 
>         >>>>> if they agree to accept this definition. This also has
>         the 
>         >>>>> advantage of better confidentiality pre-publication.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Another problem from any cross-linking of definitions is
>         that say 
>         >>>>> group A are motivated by reviewers' reports to change
>         the 
>         >>>>> definition of ZA3 pre-release. Well now the change
>         impinges on the 
>         >>>>> chemical meaning of other group B's deposited structure.
>         For example ZA3 mmcif has a statement:
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> ZA3 "Modify aromatic_flag" 2011-06-04 RCSB
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> so this change was pre-release - but we cannot be sure
>         what 
>         >>>>> motivated this - whether it was signed off by the 2Y2I
>         authors or 
>         >>>>> the 2Y59 authors (or both?)....
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> With the accelerating pace of drug discovery for sure
>         this sort of 
>         >>>>> uncertainty is going to happen again.Unless the PDB have
>         changed 
>         >>>>> their practice for ligand deposition?
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> All the best
>         >>>>>   Martyn
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> Cambridge.
>         >>>>>
>         >>>>> On Fri, Jun 19, 2015 at 1:49 PM, Sheriff, Steven 
>         >>>>> <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> All:
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Since the original query was cross-posted on both the
>         COOT 
>         >>>>>> mailing list and the CCP4BB Rachel Green gave me
>         permission to 
>         >>>>>> forward this to both. She provides links about the
>         mechanism of 
>         >>>>>> assignment of 3-letter codes. In the third link below,
>         my 
>         >>>>>> original suggestion to the COOT mailing list that one
>         could just 
>         >>>>>> use UNK is incorrect as that is reserved for unknown
>         amino acids.
>         >>>>>> According to this document, I should have suggested UNL
>         for an 
>         >>>>>> unknown ligand.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Steven
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> From: Rachel Kramer Green
>         [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
>         >>>>>> Sent: Tuesday, June 16, 2015 10:21 AM
>         >>>>>> To: Sheriff, Steven
>         >>>>>> Cc: info
>         >>>>>> Subject: Re: New ligand 3-letter code (help-7071)
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Dear Steven,
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> During annotation of ligands, all chemical components
>         present in 
>         >>>>>> the structure are compared against the definitions in
>         the 
>         >>>>>> Chemical Component Dictionary
>         (http://www.wwpdb.org/data/ccd). If 
>         >>>>>> the ligand is not in the dictionary, a three letter
>         code is 
>         >>>>>> assigned. See 
>         >>>>>>
>         http://www.wwpdb.org/documentation/policy#toc_assignment.  In
>         the 
>         >>>>>> future, a group of three-letter codes may be set aside
>         to be used during refinement to flag new ligands.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Clarification about the ligand ids assignment and in
>         particular 
>         >>>>>> the usage of UNX/UNL/UNK residues can be found at 
>         >>>>>> http://www.wwpdb.org/documentation/procedure#toc_2.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Best wishes,
>         >>>>>> Rachel
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> ________________________________
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Rachel Kramer Green, Ph.D.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> RCSB PDB
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> [log in to unmask]
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> New! Deposit X-ray data with the wwPDB at:
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> http://deposit.wwpdb.org/deposition (NMR and 3DEM
>         coming soon).
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         ___________________________________________________________
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/buildmodels
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/RCSBPDB
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> On 6/5/2015 7:50 AM, Sheriff, Steven wrote:
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> All:
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Why the concern for unassigned three-letter codes? The
>         wwPDB 
>         >>>>>> isn’t going to let you assign a three-letter code, it
>         will choose 
>         >>>>>> its own code.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> At BMS (a pharmaceutical company), we do many hundreds
>         of 
>         >>>>>> structures a year with ligands and we assign the same,
>         already 
>         >>>>>> assigned, three-letter code for all of our ligands
>         (unless we 
>         >>>>>> have two or more different ligands in a single
>         structure, in 
>         >>>>>> which case we use two or more different already
>         assigned 
>         >>>>>> three-letter codes).  COOT can mostly handle this.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> However, I believe that if you want an unassigned code,
>         the wwPDB 
>         >>>>>> has set aside UNK[nown] for this purpose.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Steven
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> From: Mailing list for users of COOT Crystallographic
>         Software 
>         >>>>>> [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Eleanor
>         Dodson
>         >>>>>> Sent: Friday, June 05, 2015 6:28 AM
>         >>>>>> To: [log in to unmask]
>         >>>>>> Subject: Re: New ligand 3-letter code
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> I use your method - trial & error..
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> It would be nice if at least there was a list somewhere
>         of 
>         >>>>>> unassigned codes!
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> On 5 June 2015 at 09:16, Lau Sze Yi (SIgN) 
>         >>>>>> <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Hi,
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> What is the proper way of generating 3-letter code for
>         a new ligand?
>         >>>>>> As of now, I insert my ligand in Coot using smiles
>         string and for 
>         >>>>>> the 3-letter code I picked a non-existent code by trial
>         and error 
>         >>>>>> (not very efficient). A cif file with corresponding
>         name which I 
>         >>>>>> generated using Phenix was imported into Coot.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> I am sure there is a proper way of doing this.
>         Appreciate your 
>         >>>>>> feedback.
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Regards,
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> Sze Yi
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> ________________________________
>         >>>>>>
>         >>>>>> This message (including any attachments) may contain 
>         >>>>>> confidential, proprietary, privileged and/or private
>         information. 
>         >>>>>> The information is intended to be for the use of the
>         individual 
>         >>>>>> or entity designated above. If you are not the intended
>         recipient 
>         >>>>>> of this message, please notify the sender immediately,
>         and delete 
>         >>>>>> the message and any attachments. Any disclosure,
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>           ________________________________  
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