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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  January 2015

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION January 2015

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Subject:

Re: FEAST - A Saint for the Day (January 24): St. Timothy

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 26 Jan 2015 02:52:18 -0600

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Timothy, Disciple of St. Paul / Timothy the Apostle (d. prob. 1st cent.). The revisions to the general Roman Calendar promulgated in 1969 include a joint feast on 23. January of Paul's disciples Timothy and Titus. The Church of England now celebrates them jointly on 26. January. Previously the Roman rite had celebrated Timothy on 24. January and Titus on 6. February; these are still their respective feast days in the Polish National Catholic Church. Orthodox and other eastern-rite churches treat both of these recipients of the Pastoral Epistles as apostles; they celebrate Timothy on 22. January. Thanks to Eusebius (_Historia ecclesiastica_, 3. 4. 5), Timothy has been widely considered the first bishop of Ephesus. A legendary Passio (BHG 1847; early translation into Latin, BHL 8294), supposedly written by a second-century successor there, has him martyred at Ephesus under Domitian (81-96) but later places his death on a 22. January in the principate of Nerva (96-98).

In the fourth century Timothy's putative remains were forcibly translated from his martyrion in Ephesus to the basilica of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. They were venerated there until their disappearance during the Unpleasantness of 1204 and following. In 1205 two teeth said to have been his were donated as Eastern relics to a monastery at Soissons. In 1238-39, during a rebuilding of the cathedral of Termoli in today's Campobasso province of Molise, a loculus was created beneath the crypt to house the body of the Blessed Timothy, disciple of Paul the Apostle. Those remains, less a skull whose presence is first recorded from 1592 but whose present reliquary is said to be of thirteenth- or fourteenth-century manufacture, were rediscovered in 1945 some ninety centimeters below the level of the floor as it was then. A view of Timothy's inscribed tombstone from that loculus is here: 
http://www.primonumero.it/termoli/monumenti/mostramonumenti.php?val=19
Two views of the reliquary:
http://www.primonumero.it/termoli/monumenti/mostramonumenti.php?val=18
http://tinyurl.com/6t7tnz4

Termoli is an Adriatic port but a much smaller one than the more southerly and much more commercially important Bari and Brindisi, which latter boast the remains, respectively, of St. Nicholas of Myra and St. Theodore of Amasea. Whatever extra-regional fame it achieved from the presence of such a potentially major saint as Timothy must have diminished rather quickly (especially after 1258, when, not all that far up the coast from Termoli, Ortona is said to have received its body of St. Thomas the Apostle).

Some medieval images of Timothy the Disciple / the Apostle (Timothy is sometimes distinguishable in groups by virtue of his being portrayed as a relatively young man [cf. 1 Tim 4:12]):

a) Timothy (at far left) in a seemingly originally early medieval fresco in the transept of Rome's basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura, retouched in the thirteenth century (the identifying inscriptions are unlikely to be early medieval) and damaged by the fire that destroyed most of the basilica in 1823:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/re_teacher/27592687/
Detail view (Timothy):
http://www.christianiconography.info/sanPaoloFLMure/timothyFresco.html

b) Timothy's martyrdom and his translation to Constantinople as depicted in the earlier eleventh-century Imperial Menologion for January in the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore (ms. W. 521, fol. 203v):
http://tinyurl.com/p34525q

c) Timothy as depicted in a full-page illumination in an eleventh- or twelfth-century manuscript of the Epistles (Paris, BnF, ms. Coislin 30, fol. 140v):
http://tinyurl.com/yctk4la

d) Timothy (at left; at right, St. Paul) as depicted at the beginning of 2 Timothy in the eleventh- or twelfth-century Second Bible of Saint-Martial de Limoges (Paris, BnF, ms. 8(2), fol. 258r):
http://tinyurl.com/oe9rad5

e) Timothy (at center, between St. Silvanus [Silas] and St. Paul) as depicted at the beginning of 1 Thessalonians in the eleventh- or twelfth-century Second Bible of Saint-Martial de Limoges (Paris, BnF, ms. 8(2), fol. 254v):
http://tinyurl.com/7npue7n

f) Timothy (at left; at right, St. Paul) as depicted at the beginning of Colossians in an early twelfth-century manuscript of the Acts and Epistles (Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, ms. W. 533, fol. 247v):
http://tinyurl.com/nk4fjqr 

g) Timothy (at right, after St. Silvanus [Silas] and St. Paul) as depicted at the beginning of 1 Thessalonians in an early twelfth-century manuscript of the Acts and Epistles (Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, ms. W. 533, fol. 255v):
http://tinyurl.com/q3uv363

h) Timothy (at right; at left, St. Paul) as depicted in an early twelfth-century giant bible (ca. 1120-1130) formerly in the possession of the monastery of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (Città del Vaticano, BAV, ms. Barberinianus latinus 587):
http://i33.servimg.com/u/f33/09/04/27/32/saint_20.jpg

i) Timothy (at center, below St. Paul and above St. Silvanus [Silas]) as depicted in a pen-and-ink drawing of an initial 'P' in a twelfth-century copy of St. Augustine's _Expositio in Epistolas Pauli_ (Heiligenkreuz [Niederösterreich], Stiftsbibliothek, cod. 33, fol. 79r):
http://tarvos.imareal.oeaw.ac.at/server/images/3003322.JPG

j) Timothy as depicted in a later twelfth-century glass window (ca. 1160) from the chapel of St. Sebastian in the église abbatiale Saint-Pierre et Saint-Paul at Neuwiller-lès-Saverne (Bas-Rhin), now in the Musée national du Moyen Âge (Musée de Cluny), Paris:
http://tinyurl.com/l5byf98
https://www.flickr.com/photos/29248605@N07/8698884298/

k) Timothy (at right, following St. Paul and St. Silvanus [Silas]) as depicted in the late twelfth-century mosaics of the basilica cattedrale di Santa Maria Nuova in Monreale:
http://tinyurl.com/kxu3tos

l) Timothy (at far left, behind St. Silvanus [Silas] and St. Paul) as depicted at the beginning of 1 Thessalonians in a twelfth- or thirteenth-century bible of central Italian origin (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 320, fol. 278v):
http://tinyurl.com/8xwqpeo

m) Timothy (at center, between St. Paul and St. Silvanus [Silas]) as depicted at the beginning of 1 Thessalonians in an earlier thirteenth-century bible (ca. 1220; Reims, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 36, fol. 148r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht6/IRHT_098029-p.jpg 

n) Timothy (at left; at right, St. Anastasius the Persian) as depicted in a thirteenth-century January menaion seemingly from Cyprus (Paris, BnF, ms. Grec 1561, fol. 89v):
http://tinyurl.com/yeehx6a

o) Timothy (at right, shown very young; at left, St. Paul) as depicted at the beginning of 1 Timothy in a later thirteenth-century bible (betw. 1251 and 1276; Paris, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève; ms. 14, fol. 476v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht15/IRHT_020980-p.jpg

p) Timothy as portrayed by Arnolfo di Cambio in one of the four niches of his late thirteenth-century ciborium (1285) in Rome's basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura (the others are St. Peter, St. Paul, and either St. Benedict or the donor, a Benedictine abbot):
http://www.fondazionezeri.unibo.it/foto/160000/141600/141481.jpg
A closer view:
http://www.fondazionezeri.unibo.it/foto/160000/141600/141551.jpg 

q) Timothy (at right; at left, St. Paul) as depicted in illuminations accompanying 1 and 2 Timothy in an earlier fourteenth-century copy (betw. 1301 and 1326) of Guiard des Moulins' _Bible historiale_ (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 152, fols. 490r and 491v):
http://tinyurl.com/y9qaa36
http://tinyurl.com/yc7aune

r) Timothy (at right; at left, St. Cyril of Alexandria) in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. ca. 1312 and 1321/1322) of the northwest little dome in the monastery church of the Theotokos at Gračanica in, depending on one's view of the matter, either Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija or the Republic of Kosovo:
http://tinyurl.com/6gjon9q

s) Timothy (at right; at left St. Paul) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century copy (ca. 1330) of Guiard des Moulins' _Bible historiale_ (Troyes, Médiathèques de l'Agglomération troyenne, ms. 59, fol. 571v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht1/IRHT_045795-p.jpg

t) Timothy's martyrdom (lower register; above, St. Anastasius the Persian) as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. 1335 and 1350) of the narthex in the church of the Holy Ascension at the Visoki Dečani monastery near Peć in, depending on one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
http://tinyurl.com/mqp3e57

u) Timothy's martyrdom as depicted in a later fourteenth-century copy (ca. 1370-1380) of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 15941, fol. 12r):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8449688c/f31.item

v) Timothy (at left, attired as a cardinal; at right, a messenger) receiving 1 Timothy as depicted by the Master of the Hours of Johannette Ravenelle in a late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century composite bible (between 1395 and 1401) chiefly drawing on Guiard des Moulins' _Bible historiale_ (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 159, fol. 503r):
http://tinyurl.com/ycbbjqh

w) Timothy's consecration as bishop and Timothy's martyrdom as depicted in a later fifteenth-century copy (1463) of Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 50, fol. 365v):
http://tinyurl.com/ylpvs6h

Best,
John Dillon
(matter from an older post revised)


On 01/26/15, Matt Heintzelman wrote:
> 
> https://www.facebook.com/604882972899463/photos/a.624764970911263.1073741830.604882972899463/766765750044517/?type=1&theater
> 
> 
> 
> The apocryphal Acts of Timothy states that in the year 97, the 80 year old bishop tried to halt a procession in honor of the goddess Diana by preaching the gospel. The angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, and stoned him to death. (Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Timothy(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Timothy))
>

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