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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  November 2012

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION November 2012

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Subject:

Feasts and Saints of the Day: November 30

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 30 Nov 2012 13:01:14 -0600

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (30. November) is the feast day of:

1) Andrew the Protoclete, apostle (d. 1st cent.). Like his brother Simon Peter today's well known saint of the Regno was a disciple of St. John the Forerunner before becoming an adherent of Jesus of Nazareth. According to Eusebius, he preached in Scythia, by which latter quite possibly is meant the Roman province of this name erected by Diocletian in today's southeastern Romania and northeastern Bulgaria (Ukrainians and Russians think otherwise, of course). Theodoret has A. preaching in Greece. From at least the fourth century onward it has been believed that he suffered martyrdom at Patras.

In 357 relics venerated as A.'s were brought from Patras to Constantinople's church of the Holy Apostles. Scots believe that in the eighth century their St. Regulus (Rule) brought A.'s relics from Constantinople to today's St Andrews in Fife. Two illustrated pages on the St Rule Tower and the ruins of St Andrews cathedral at St Andrews are here:
http://tinyurl.com/5rdxce
http://tinyurl.com/yrfguc

But all in Campania know that in 1208 A.'s remains were brought from Constantinople to Amalfi, where they are now housed in the cathedral dedicated to him. Matthew of Amalfi's account of this translation, as published by the comte de Riant in its later thirteenth-century revised version, repays reading in several respects (this will be found in vol. 1 of succeeding versions of Riant's _Exuviae sacrae Constantinopolitanae_ ([1876; 1877-78]).

Of course, neither Matthew nor his reviser had any idea that in the 1460s the Despot of Morea, Thomas Palaeologus, would bring with him into exile in Italy a head said to be that of St. Andrew, that Pius II would acquire it for the Roman church and -- seizing upon this capital opportunity -- use it as a propaganda device for his projected crusade against the Turks, that in this context Cardinal Bessarion would give a welcoming speech to A. in the apostle's partial presence in 1462 (a heady moment, no doubt), and that in 1964 Paul VI would "return" this relic plus a finger bone from A.'s relics in Amalfi to the Greek Orthodox church in Patras.
The opening page of Pius II's account of Andrew's reception in Italy (with an illuminated initial showing Pius holding a bust of A.) as transmitted in a contemporary (1463-1464) collection of writings by this pontiff (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 5565 A, fol. 1r):
http://tinyurl.com/c6n36lm
Two views of A.'s skull reliquary in Patras:
http://www.rel.gr/photo/displayimage.php?album=9&pos=29
http://str1.crestin-ortodox.ro/foto/1265/126484_capul-sfantul-andrei-patras.jpg

Still, the Roman Catholic Church has an upper part of a skull among A.'s putative relics at Amalfi (perhaps the head now in Patras was only one of A.'s spares). Herewith some views of it taken when it was on display at Sant'Andrea della Valle in Rome in 2008 for the 800th anniversary of A.'s translation to Amalfi:
http://tinyurl.com/2ej6ktp
http://tinyurl.com/269p9bl
http://tinyurl.com/2cwc7rn
http://tinyurl.com/2ce4een

A.'s right foot is said to be in the monastery of Agios Andreas on Kefalonia. Other relics believed to be his are in the skete of St. Andrew on Mt. Athos, a Russian foundation honoring one of that country's patron saints. Here's a view of a reliquary belonging to that monastery and said to contain A.'s skull:
http://tinyurl.com/2vvrx9v
Andrew the Polycephalous, perhaps.
The Vatopedi monastery on Mt. Athos has what is described as a relic of A.'s right hand:
http://tinyurl.com/2wwqx5r

The cathedral of Trier has a later tenth-century portable altar (ca. 980) made for and containing what is said to be the sole of one of A.'s sandals:
http://tinyurl.com/7vb37vs
From at least 1250 until 1979, when it was transferred to A.'s church at Patras, a cross believed to be that of A. was preserved in the church of St. Victor at Marseille.

A few medieval portrayals of A.:

a) A. as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (betw. 527 and 548) on the triumphal arch of Ravenna's basilica di San Vitale (photograph courtesy of Genevra Kornbluth):
http://www.kornbluthphoto.com/images/VitaleChancelArch4.jpg

b) A grayscale view of A. as depicted in an early eighth-century fresco (betw. 705 and 707) in Rome's chiesa di Santa Maria Antiqua:
http://www.icon-art.info/masterpiece.php?lng=en&mst_id=1894

c) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in an illuminated initial in the mid-ninth-century Drogo Sacramentary (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 9428, fol. 98v):
http://tinyurl.com/ye4gqbk

d) A. as depicted in an early eleventh-century illumination (ca. 1020) in a sacramentary now at Rouen (Rouen, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 274, fol. 164v):
http://tinyurl.com/y8rsfuf

e) A. as depicted in the earlier eleventh-century mosaics (restored between 1953 and 1962) in the katholikon of the monastery of Hosios Loukas near Distomo in Phokis:
http://tinyurl.com/bp4kch4

f) A. as depicted in the eleventh-century frescoes of the chiesa collegiata di San Orso in Aosta:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3375394732/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3375397470/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3374574641/

g) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in a later eleventh-century illumination (before 1096) in an Office lectionary for the cathedral of Reims (Reims, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 295, fol. 215r):
http://tinyurl.com/yg4zarg

h) A. (at left; at right, St. Peter) as depicted in the mid-twelfth-century (later 1140s?) mosaics of the basilica di Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (a.k.a. chiesa della Martorana) in Palermo:
http://tinyurl.com/6o3t5dc

i) A.'s twelfth-century statue (probably later 1140s; _aliter_, 1170s) from the destroyed tomb of St. Lazarus in the latter's collegiate church in Autun, now in that city's Musée Rolin:
http://tinyurl.com/29nuaer
http://tinyurl.com/27gw3sr
http://www.wga.hu/art/m/master/yunk_fr/yunk_fr1a/04andrew.jpg

j) A. (at right; at left, St. Paul) as portrayed in relief on the late twelfth-century portal (betw. 1180 and 1190) of the église primatiale Saint-Trophime in Arles:
http://tinyurl.com/2aumtyx

k) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in an earlier thirteenth-century illumination (ca. 1230-1240) in a psalter from Hildesheim, now in the BnF in Paris (ms. Nouvelle acquisition latine 3102, fol. 6v):
http://tinyurl.com/ygjj2cn

l) A. as depicted in a thirteenth-century illumination (ca. 1234-1266) on a map of the Mediterranean (Lyon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 175, sheet 9):
http://tinyurl.com/ylf7lwr

m) A. (at far left) as depicted in an earlier thirteenth-century illumination (ca. 1266) of the Calling of Peter and Andrew, in a Gospels for the Use of Cambrai (Cambrai, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 189, fol. 170r) :
http://tinyurl.com/yju77bh

n) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in an illumination in the late thirteenth-century (ca. 1285-1290) Livre d'images de Madame Marie (Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 16251, fol. 65v):
http://tinyurl.com/c6vbkyc

o) An expandable view of A.'s martyrdom as depicted in illumination in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the _Legenda aurea_ (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 1r):
http://tinyurl.com/brd5mjs

p) A. as depicted in the late thirteenth- or very early fourteenth-century frescoes, attributed to Manuel Panselinos, in the Protaton church on Mt. Athos:
http://tinyurl.com/29nymec
Detail view:
http://tinyurl.com/27z6pn2

q) A. as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. ca. 1313 and 1320) by Michael Astrapas and Eutychios in the King's Church (dedicated to Sts. Joachim and Anne) at the Studenica monastery near Kraljevo (Raška dist.) in Serbia:
http://tinyurl.com/yzh4h93

r) A. as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1326) by Simone Martini, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/simone/4altars/5agostin/8andrew.jpg

s) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in an illumination by the Fauvel Master in an earlier fourteenth-century (betw. ca. 1315 and 1350) collection of French-language saint's lives (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 24r):
http://tinyurl.com/bsk8gll

t) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in an illumination by Jeanne de Montbaston in an earlier fourteenth-century (betw. 1326 and 1350) collection of French-language saint's lives (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 185, fol. 36v):
http://tinyurl.com/blegjzq

u) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (betw. 1335 and 1350) in the narthex of the church of the Holy Ascension at the Visoki Dečani monastery near Peć in, depending upon one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
http://tinyurl.com/yfwotnx

v) A. as depicted in the later fourteenth-century frescoes (1360s and 1370s; restored in 1968-1970) in the church of St. Demetrius in Marko's Monastery at Markova Sušica (near Skopje) in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:
http://tinyurl.com/85f9a5c

w) A. (at right) as depicted in a late fourteenth-century panel painting (1395) by Taddeo di Bartolo, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest:
http://www.wga.hu/art/t/taddeo/virgin.jpg

x) A. as depicted in an early fifteenth-century panel painting (1408) by Andrei Rublev for the Assumption cathedral in Vladimir, now in the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow:
http://www.belygorod.ru/img2/Ikona/Used/155ublev_andrey_pervozvaniy.jpg

y) A. as depicted (betw. St. Peter and St. James the Great) on the fifteenth-century rood screen in Gooderstone Church, Gooderstone (Norfolk):
http://tinyurl.com/bwffwxk

z) A. as depicted in an earlier- to mid-fifteenth-century glass window in the Church of St Michael, Doddiscombsleigh (Devon; photographs by Gordon Plumb):
http://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/3634778405/
Detail view:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/3634781825/

aa) A. as depicted in an earlier to mid-fifteenth-century glass window (ca. 1440-1450) in the Church of St Mary, Orchardleigh (Somerset; photographs by Gordon Plumb):
http://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2492789738/
Detail view:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2492794548/

bb) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in a mid-fifteenth-century illumination (1450s) by Jean Fouquet from his now dismembered Hours of Étienne Chevalier (this folio in the Musée Condé, Chantilly [Oise]):
http://tinyurl.com/7vrnpgd

cc) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in a late fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1490) by Carlo Braccesco, now in the Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro, Venice:
http://www.wga.hu/art/b/braccesc/standrew.jpg

dd) A. holding his cross as portrayed in an earlier sixteenth-century pen-and-ink design for a stained glass window (ca. 1519-1521) by Hans Holbein the Younger, now in the Kunstmuseum Basel:
http://tinyurl.com/c9gdjz6

In a post on this day in 2011 Gordon Plumb added links to a few other glass visuals of Andrew: 
http://tinyurl.com/c4jq3o5


Some dedications to Andrew:

A fairly substantial set of links to views of these (starting with the cathedral of Amalfi) will be found in a post for this day in 2010:
http://tinyurl.com/coews3c
I haven't checked to see which links may no longer function. At item c), add these links to aerial views of the cathedral of Bordeaux:
http://tinyurl.com/7zd4alv
http://tinyurl.com/7s5sbpx

And add this illustrated, French-language fact sheet on, and other views of, the originally eleventh(?)- to fifteenth-century église Saint-André at Exmes (Orne):
http://tinyurl.com/c6scq63
http://tinyurl.com/7t6xqac
http://www.france-voyage.com/travel-photos/view-exmes-19197.htm
http://tinyurl.com/6m6lg8b
http://www.france-voyage.com/travel-photos/view-exmes-19202.htm


2) Mirocles (d. early 4th cent.). As bishop of Milan M. participated in the synods of Rome in 313 and Arles in 314 that dealt with the Donatist question. With the exceptions of the Arian Auxentius (355-74) and of a line of bishops in exile in the later sixth and earlier seventh centuries, all the early bishops of Milan from its early third-century protobishop Anatolus through Natalis (d. 751) are considered saints. Among these, M. had in late antique and early medieval tradition a certain prominence, probably because he was the incumbent when the Edicts of Milan were promulgated. St. Ambrose names him among his exemplary Catholic predecessors (_Epistulae_, 21. 18) and St. Ennodius (d. 521) thinks it worth mentioning that St. Epiphanius of Pavia (d. 496) was through his mother's family related to M. Today is M.'s _dies natalis_.


3) Tudwal (d. mid-6th cent.). One of the seven founding saints of Brittany, T. (also Tugdual) is first recorded in a Breton liturgy of the tenth century. His originally eleventh- or twelfth-century Vita (different versions: BHL 8350, 8351, 8353) makes him a Welsh monk who arrives in Brittany at what would be the outset of the twelfth century and there, after spending some time as an hermit, founds a monastery at today's Tréguier (Côtes-d'Armor). Later T. goes on pilgrimage to Rome, is elected pope (taking the name of Leo), and returns to Tréguier, where he dies and is buried. Underlying this story is a misapprehension about the significance of T.'s appellation Pabu (Breton for 'father'), applied to Breton monastic founders and to the monasteries named for them.

The diocese of Tréguier was erected in 848. Its first cathedral is thought either to have been destroyed by Northmen or, when the place had been abandoned under the pressure of their attacks, to have succumbed to the elements. When a new cathedral was built in the later tenth century it was dedicated to T., as was also its originally fourteenth- and fifteenth-century successor, now a cathedral of the diocese of Saint-Brieuc and Tréguier. Some views of that structure:
http://tinyurl.com/5juhma
http://tinyurl.com/62d52b
http://tinyurl.com/5zcflx
http://tinyurl.com/6h6lps

Best,
John Dillon

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