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Subject:

FW: DISABILITY-RESEARCH Digest - 11 Apr 2012 to 12 Apr 2012 (#2012-89)

From:

Nicola Martin <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Disability Equality Research Network DERN <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 13 Apr 2012 08:48:20 +0100

Content-Type:

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-----Original Message-----
From: The Disability-Research Discussion List [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of DISABILITY-RESEARCH automatic digest system
Sent: 13 April 2012 00:00
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: DISABILITY-RESEARCH Digest - 11 Apr 2012 to 12 Apr 2012 (#2012-89)

There are 4 messages totaling 460 lines in this issue.

Topics of the day:

  1. Lives worth living and the disability movement
  2. Some more about the word 'handicap'.
  3. 7 days to go to end of disability and diversity quiz
  4. Online Graduate Level Disability Studies Course for Fall, 2012

________________End of message________________

This Disability-Research Discussion list is managed by the Centre for Disability Studies at the University of Leeds (www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies).

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----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date:    Thu, 12 Apr 2012 04:55:34 +0100
From:    Keith Armstrong <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: Re: Lives worth living and the disability movement

Hello Jacx,

The images of iron lungs in the early part of the video brought me back to Doris Page who used an iron lung for about 30 years.  From her iron lung she edited a rather good magazine for gadgetry aided people from the mid--1960's until her death in the early 70's called 'Respronaught' under the name 'Ann Armstrong'.  She published a number of articles by Paul  Hunt.  She used an ambulance to take her to Buckingham Palace to get her M.B.E.

I only have one copy and would like to see other issues. Does anyone here known where they might be archived?

________________End of message________________

This Disability-Research Discussion list is managed by the Centre for Disability Studies at the University of Leeds (www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies).

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------------------------------

Date:    Thu, 12 Apr 2012 06:27:11 +0100
From:    Keith Armstrong <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: Some more about the word 'handicap'.

There are a number of reasons to challenge the use of the word "handicapped".  

The bible of UK English is the much quoted Oxford English Dictionary (OED) published by Oxford University Press.  If one looks up the word "handicapped", the reference gives us:

"....Hence "handicapping vbl. n. and ppl. a.; "handicapped ppl. a., of persons, esp. children, physically or mentally defective. Also absol. as n.

   "1856 H. H. Dixon Post & Paddock ii. 46 Dr. Bellyse, whose love of handicapping and cock-fighting was so [great]."  "1889 W. T. Linskill Golf iii. (1895) 15 Another form of odds is 'so many holes up'.  This is handicapping by holes and not by strokes."  "1915 L. D. Wald House on Henry St. 117 (caption) The Handicapped Child."

The last reference of 1915 is the first mention of the use of this word in connection with impairment in the dictionary.  

The ref. can be translated thus: 1915 (date of publication) L. D. Wald (author) The House on Henry Street (book title) 117 (page) "(caption)" (chapter title) "The Handicapped Child."

In many respects Lillian D. Wald was a pioneer. She was a nurse who set up a welfare group in a very poor area of New York.  She was also a Jewish lesbian socialist feminist whose views on many subjects were advanced for her time. However, from reading her book it is very clear she was phobic about people with physical and mental impairments including learning difficulties. Her book reflected this phobia. 

1915 was a busy year for Lillian D. Wald.  She wrote a number of articles for 'Atlantic Monthly'.  While the First World War raged on in Europe, in the USA the Ku Klux Klan lynched many Black people, it was a bad year for equalities.

Also in 1915 Dr Harry Haiselden of the then German-American hospital in Chicago promoted his campaign to eliminate those infants that he termed hereditary "unfit,"  displaying the dying babies and their mothers to journalists. He also made a film about his ideas called "The Black Stork". His ideas were well received in Nazi Germany and eventually led to the gas chambers. Martin S. Pernick, in his book 'The Black Stork' wrote that: Despite the objections of many film regulators and censors, 'The Black Stork' was shown commercially in movie theaters from 1916 through the 1920's, after 1918 under the title 'Are You Fit to Marry?' It was slightly revised and re-released in 1927, and, though no sound track was added, it continued to be shown in small theaters and travelling road shows perhaps as late as 1942.

Lillian D. Wald publicly supported Dr Haiselden's killing of disabled children.  Pernick states that; A substantial number of very prominent early 20th century Americans favored letting deformed infants die. Supporters included such leading progressive reformers as settlement worker and nurse Lillian Wald, family-law pioneer Judge Ben Lindsey....

The Nazi killing machine of disabled people known as T4 was led by Rudolf Hess and resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 disabled people including Richard Jenne, just four years old, who became the last victim of the euthanasia killers. This happened on 29 May, 1945, in the children's ward of the Kaufbeuren-Irsee state hospital in Bavaria, Germany.  Hess was never charged with this war crime of the murder of disabled people.

Sadly, Haiselden's and Wald's ideas are not dead and are still rattling around the academic world. Earlier this year (2012) Dr Francesca Minerva, a philosopher and medical ethicist, had an article published by the British Medical Journal that argued that a young baby is not a real person and so killing it in the first days after birth is little different to aborting it in the womb. Dr Minerva also claimed that doctors should have the right to kill newborn babies because they are disabled, too expensive or simply unwanted by their mothers. Dr Minerva's conclusions were not criticised in the British 'quality' press such as The Guardian and The Independent.

After further research it turns out that the OED is incorrect in suggesting Wald as the originator for the use of the word "handicapped" in the context of impairment or disability.  

I have discovered two slightly earlier references for the word “handicap”.  One can be found in the British Library. They were both made by a disabled person and imply disadvantage. The first use in this context was published anonymously in the Atlantic Monthly in 1911.  The second reference as 
a chapter title 'A Philosophy of Handicap' (or cartoon in OED speak) in 'Youth & Life' by Randolph Silliman Bourne (1886 – 1918) in 1913.  It seems likely that Bourne (who had a Scoliosis) wrote the earlier anonymous article in the 'Atlantic Monthly'.   Bourne used the word “handicap” in the sense of disadvantage.

There is no such thing as right or wrong in the use of most words, nor is there any such thing as 'politically correct'.  The term 'politically correct' was first used by bigots who wanted to continue using abusive language in an abusive linguistic context.   

In one to one communication we ask a person's name.  If the reply we receive is 'John', we don't say 'Hello Fred' if we expect a reply or even an acknowledgement.  Likewise, if we refer to a group of people that we are not a member of, we should use a term that the group uses that acknowledges respect and dignity.  This is especially so when the group has suffered historical indignity and discrimination.  This is not because it is 'politically correct'; it is because it is just good manners.

Many years ago, I was talking about language with an African friend.  He told me that he had met people 'who used all the right words', however their hostility to him because he was black was revealed in the way they conducted themselves.  Likewise, if a poorly educated person who was good natured referred to him as 'coloured', he did not take offence.  

The Anglo-Saxon words 'cripple' (crypel) and 'lame' (lam) can be dated back to the early 9th century.  Neither words were used abusively until the 17th century in the so-called 'Age of Enlightenment' when the UK led the world in slavery. Interestingly the root of the word 'cripple' is 'creep'. Before the technology of the wheelchair had been invented poor people with physical impairments that affected their mobility had to literally creep around, in contrast to the rich who were physically carried in a litter. 

The old saying “Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me” is incorrect. Almost all genocide has started with hate speech, including 'the troubles' in Northern Ireland, and the 'Irish joke' spoken by the Englishman. The genocide in Rwanda and the Nazi Holocaust against the Roma, disabled people, lesbians and gays, Jews and other poor people has without exception started with speech or language that has belittled the chosen victims. 

Recommended reading

Bourne, Randolph, (1913: 339), Youth & Life, p337 (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin).

Friedlander, Henry, (1995:163), Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution, (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press). 

Pernick, Martin S. (1996: 6) The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures since 1915 (New York: Oxford University Press) 

Simpson & Weiner Eds. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd Edition, (1989), (Oxford : Clarendon Press).

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2108433/Doctors-right-kill-unwanted-disabled-babies-
birth-real-person-claims-Oxford-academic.html

" the gas chambers and the ovens become ordinary scenery " http://www.bookdrum.com/books/the-reader/9780753804704/bookmarks-101-125.html

Wald, Lillian D. (1915: 117) The House on Henry Street (New York: Henry Holt & Company).

________________End of message________________

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------------------------------

Date:    Thu, 12 Apr 2012 09:06:25 +0100
From:    Melanie Thorley <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: 7 days to go to end of disability and diversity quiz

dear colleagues

apologies if this is of no interest or you have already submitted a completed quiz.

the deadline for our disability and diversity quiz is next thursday. there are just 19 multiple choice questions which will hopefully raise some awareness and acknowledge the contrbutions made by our diverse populations throughout the world. anyone can have a go and the prizes are amazon vouchers. the quiz can be found at www.gre.ac.uk/aap<http://www.gre.ac.uk/aap>. even though the quiz is UK based, the quiz is not limited to people in the UK - absolutely anyone can have a go

good luck!

best wishes and thanks

melanie and the *AccessAbility Ambassadors

Melanie Thorley
*AccessAbility Project Co-ordinator
[https://owa.gre.ac.uk/owa/attachment.ashx?id=RgAAAAB%2fJH61rlPtTqLeTt9kLkpcBwCJvpVi9JgXQaa9JCx5OcV9ACBcvu0CAACJvpVi9JgXQaa9JCx5OcV9AFIUmv6lAAAJ&attcnt=1&attid0=EABxf%2fAPrBz9SojiupXJVcZD]  [https://owa.gre.ac.uk/owa/attachment.ashx?id=RgAAAAB%2fJH61rlPtTqLeTt9kLkpcBwCJvpVi9JgXQaa9JCx5OcV9ACBcvu0CAACJvpVi9JgXQaa9JCx5OcV9AFIUmv6lAAAJ&attcnt=1&attid0=EADgRWDU8K56SqxWPV8Ip6YM]



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________________End of message________________

This Disability-Research Discussion list is managed by the Centre for Disability Studies at the University of Leeds (www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies).

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Archives and tools are located at: www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/disability-research.html

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------------------------------

Date:    Thu, 12 Apr 2012 11:18:24 -1000
From:    Megan Conway <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: Online Graduate Level Disability Studies Course for Fall, 2012

OFFERED ONLINE FOR FALL, 2012!

INTRODUCTION TO DISABILITY AND DIVERSITY STUDIES (DIS 683)

INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Megan Conway
Email: [log in to unmask] Tel: 808-956-6166

WHO SHOULD TAKE THIS COURSE?

This course is designed for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines concerned with disability and diversity issues.
The course is open to currently enrolled UH students and to non-UH students (via the UH Outreach College).
This is a core course for the interdisciplinary Disability and Diversity Studies Certificate Program http://www.cds.hawaii.edu/main/certificates/ but can also be taken as an elective.  Emphasis will be placed on introducing students to knowledge and theories about disability rights, policy, and culture from a diversity perspective in the context of multiple disciplines.

WHEN:  Wednesdays, 1:00pm - 2:30pm HST, August 22th - December 5th

CREDITS:   3

REGISTRATION INFO: (UH Students only) Fall 2012 CRN 75967; Out of State and others can also register via Outreach College www.outreach.hawaii.edu, Fall Extension 2012 CRN TBA.

COST: Non-UH students please contact the Outreach College for cost per credit amounts.

WHERE: Via Elluminate (live online interactive sessions) and Laulima (online course materials and discussion board)


--
Megan A. Conway, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Center on Disability Studies

Center on Disability Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa
1776 University Avenue, UA 4-7, Honolulu, HI 96822
Phone: 808-956-6166 Fax: 808-956-7878 Email: [log in to unmask]

________________End of message________________

This Disability-Research Discussion list is managed by the Centre for Disability Studies at the University of Leeds (www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies).

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Archives and tools are located at: www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/disability-research.html

You can VIEW, POST, JOIN and LEAVE the list by logging in to this web page.

------------------------------

End of DISABILITY-RESEARCH Digest - 11 Apr 2012 to 12 Apr 2012 (#2012-89)
*************************************************************************

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