JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for SPORT-MED Archives


SPORT-MED Archives

SPORT-MED Archives


SPORT-MED@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

SPORT-MED Home

SPORT-MED Home

SPORT-MED  December 2011

SPORT-MED December 2011

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

MEDICAL : HEALTH : INFORMATION LITERACY : HEALTH: INFORMATION LITERACY: Health Literacy

From:

"David P. Dillard" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

To support research in sports medicine <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 31 Dec 2011 16:44:27 -0500

Content-Type:

TEXT/PLAIN

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (835 lines)

.

.


MEDICAL :

HEALTH :

INFORMATION LITERACY :

HEALTH: INFORMATION LITERACY:

Health Literacy

.

.

Health Literacy

National Network of Libraries of Medicine

National Library of Medicine

8600 Rockville Pike, Bldg. 38, Room B1-E03

Bethesda, Maryland 20894

http://nnlm.gov/outreach/consumer/hlthlit.html

.

.


Topics on this page:

.

Definition

Skills Needed for Health Literacy

Background

Research Findings on Impact of Literacy

Economic Impact of Low Health Literacy

Role of the Consumer Health Librarian

Health Literacy Organizations and Programs

Bibliographies, Webliographies, and Web Resources

Health Literacy Listservs

.

.

Definition

In the report Healthy People 2010

(http://www.healthypeople.gov/Document/pdf/uih/2010uih.pdf)

the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services included improved 
consumer health literacy as Objective 11-2, and identified health literacy 
as an important component of health communication, medical product safety, 
and oral health. Health literacy is defined in Health People 2010 as: "The 
degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and 
understand basic health information and services needed to make 
appropriate health decisions".

.

Health literacy includes the ability to understand instructions on 
prescription drug bottles, appointment slips, medical education brochures, 
doctor's directions and consent forms, and the ability to negotiate 
complex health care systems. Health literacy is not simply the ability to 
read. It requires a complex group of reading, listening, analytical, and 
decision-making skills, and the ability to apply these skills to health 
situations.

.

Health literacy varies by context and setting and is not necessarily 
related to years of education or general reading ability. A person who 
functions adequately at home or work may have marginal or inadequate 
literacy in a health care environment. With the move towards a more 
"consumer-centric" health care system as part of an overall effort to 
improve the quality of health care and to reduce health care costs, 
individuals need to take an even more active role in health care related 
decisions. To accomplish this people need strong health information 
skills.

.

Skills Needed for Health Literacy

.

Patients are often faced with complex information and treatment decisions. 
Some of the specific tasks patients are required to carry out may include:

evaluating information for credibility and quality,

analyzing relative risks and benefits,

calculating dosages,

interpreting test results, or

locating health information.

.

In order to accomplish these tasks, individuals may need to be:

visually literate (able to understand graphs or other visual information),
computer literate (able to operate a computer),
information literate (able to obtain and apply relevant information), and
numerically or computationally literate (able to calculate or reason 
numerically).

.

Oral language skills are important as well. Patients need to articulate 
their health concerns and describe their symptoms accurately. They need to 
ask pertinent questions, and they need to understand spoken medical advice 
or treatment directions. In an age of shared responsibility between 
physician and patient for health care, patients need strong 
decision-making skills. With the development of the Internet as a source 
of health information, health literacy may also include the ability to 
search the Internet and evaluate websites.

.

Background

.

According to the American Medical Association, poor health literacy is "a 
stronger predictor of a person's health than age, income, employment 
status, education level, and race" (Report on the Council of Scientific 
Affairs, Ad Hoc Committee on Health Literacy for the Council on Scientific 
Affairs, American Medical Association, JAMA, Feb 10, 1999). In Health 
Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, the Institute of Medicine 
reports that ninety million people in the United States, nearly half the 
population, have difficulty understanding and using health information. As 
a result, patients often take medicines on erratic schedules, miss 
follow-up appointments, and do not understand instructions like "take on 
an empty stomach".

.

Vulnerable populations include:

.

Elderly (age 65+) - Two thirds of U.S. adults age 60 and over have 
inadequate or marginal literacy skills, and 81% of patients age 60 and 
older at a public hospital could not read or understand basic materials 
such as prescription labels (Williams, MV. JAMA, December 6, 1995).
Minority populations
Immigrant populations

.

Low income - Approximately half of Medicare/Medicaid recipients read below 
the fifth-grade level

http://www.medicarerights.org/maincontentstatsdemographics.html

.

People with chronic mental and/or physical health conditions

.

Reasons for limited literacy skills include:

.

Lack of educational opportunity - people with a high school education or 
lower

.

Learning disabilities

.

Cognitive declines in older adults

.

Use it or lose it - Reading abilities are typically three to five grade 
levels below the last year of school completed. Therefore, people with a 
high school diploma, typically read at a seventh or eighth grade reading 
level.

.

The relationship between literacy and health is complex. Literacy impacts 
health knowledge, health status, and access to health services. Health 
status is influenced by several related socioeconomic factors. Literacy 
impacts income level, occupation, education, housing, and access to 
medical care. The poor and illiterate are more likely to work under 
hazardous conditions or be exposed to environmental toxins.

.

The results of the 1992 Adult Literacy Survey (National Center for 
Education Statistics, US Department of Education) indicate that adults 
with low literacy were more likely than those with higher literacy levels 
to be poor and to have health conditions which limit their activities. 
There are both direct and indirect consequences of low health literacy. 
The direct effects include non-compliance or medication errors. The 
indirect effects are harder to measure, but may include insurance issues, 
accessibility to health care, and poor health behavior choices. "Groups 
with the highest prevalence of chronic disease and the greatest need for 
health care had the least ability to read and comprehend information 
needed to function as patients", according to the Report on the Council of 
Scientific Affairs, Ad Hoc Committee on Health Literacy for the Council on 
Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association (JAMA, Feb 10, 1999).

.

Research Findings on Impact of Literacy

.

According to the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Report, 
Literacy and Health Outcomes (January 2004), low health literacy is linked 
to higher rates of hospitalization and higher use of expensive emergency 
services. This evidence-based literature review highlights numerous 
studies that provide a detailed analysis of the correlation between low 
health literacy and poor health. Below are just a few of the conclusions 
from studies on health literacy and outcomes.

Cancer Treatment (Merriman, Betty, CA: A Cancer Journal for Physicians, 
May/June 2002)

.

Low literacy adversely impacts cancer incidence, mortality, and quality of 
life. For example:

.

1.Cancer screening information may be ineffective; as a result, patients 
may be diagnosed at a later stage.

.

2.Treatment options may not be fully understood; therefore, some patients 
may not receive treatments that best meet their needs.

.

3.Informed consent documents may be too complex for many patients and 
consequently, patients may make suboptimal decisions about accepting or 
rejecting interventions.

Diabetes (Schillinger, Dean, JAMA, July 24/31, 2002)

.

Among primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes, inadequate health 
literacy is independently associated with worse glycemic control and 
higher rates of retinopathy. Inadequate health literacy may contribute to 
the disproportionate burden of diabetes related problems among 
disadvantaged populations.

Asthma (Williams, MV, Chest, October 1998)

.

Inadequate literacy was common and strongly correlated with poorer 
knowledge of asthma and improper metered-dose inhaler (MDI) use. More than 
half of patients reading at a sixth-grade level or less report they go to 
the Emergency Department when they have an attack compared with less than 
a third of literate patients. Less than one third of patients with the 
poorest reading skills knew they should see a physician when their asthma 
was not symptomatic as compared with 90% of literate patients.
Hypertension and Diabetes (Williams MV, Archives of Internal Medicine, 
January 26, 1998)

.

Almost half (48%) of the patients with hypertension or diabetes in a study 
had inadequate functional health literacy, and these patients had 
significantly less knowledge of their disease, important lifestyle 
modifications, and essential self-management skills, despite having 
attended formal education classes

.

Economic Impact of Low Health Literacy

.

In addition to the effects of low health literacy on the individual 
patient, there are economic consequences of low health literacy to 
society. The National Academy on an Aging Society estimated that 
additional health care costs due to low health literacy were about $73 
billion in 1998 dollars

Health Literacy Fact Sheet

http://www.agingsociety.org/agingsociety/publications/fact/fact_low.html

.

After adjusting for health status, education level, socioeconomic status, 
and other demographics factors, people with low functional literacy have 
less ability to care for chronic conditions and use more health care 
services. The information below is from the Center on an Aging Society at 
Georgetown University

http://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/healthlit.html

.

Among adults who stayed overnight in a hospital in 1994, those with low 
health literacy averaged 6% more hospital visits, and stayed in the 
hospital nearly two days longer than adults with higher health literacy 
skills.

.

When self-reported health status is taken into account, patients with low 
health literacy skills had fewer doctor visits but used substantially more 
hospital resources.

.

The estimated additional health care expenditures due to low health 
literacy skills are about $73 billion in 1998 health care dollars. This 
includes an estimated $30 billion for the population that is functionally 
illiterate plus $43 billion for the population that is marginally 
literate.

.

This amount is about what Medicare is expected to pay to finance physician 
services, dental services, home health care, prescription drugs, and 
nursing home care combined.

.

Medicare pays 39 percent of the expenditures. Medicaid pays more than $10 
billion dollars, or 14 percent of the additional health care expenditures. 
Most of the additional expenditure is financed through FICA taxes on 
workers.

.

Role of the Consumer Health Librarian

.

Many consumer health initiatives are geared towards technological access 
to health information or rewriting existing health materials at a simpler 
language level. Both of these approaches are important, but limited. 
Easy-to-read materials and access to technology are only pieces of a 
process that must be placed in a larger community context.

.

Consumer health librarians can actively develop partnerships with:
literacy groups (adult basic education, English as a Second Language, 
etc.)

.

community-based organizations

public and private schools (K-12)

public libraries

senior-citizen facilities (adult day care, 55+ housing complexes,

assisted-living facilities, nursing homes, etc.)

health care associations

.

This may take the form of providing space for meetings, providing health 
literacy materials, or actively developing health literacy programs. 
Consumer health librarians can promote awareness of health literacy among 
health professionals by creating clearinghouses of health literacy 
information, sponsoring health literacy seminars, and encouraging 
multi-organizational collaborations.

.

Possible initiatives to consider include:

.

Developing partnerships with K-12 school librarians, math teachers, health 
teachers, science teachers, and school nurses to introduce health related 
tasks into the curriculum

.

Work with Adult Basic Education and English as a Second Language 
initiatives to include health related information into the program
Partner with community-based organizations to develop outreach programs to 
senior-citizen facilities to discuss health information topics
Health information classes at the public library to teach health related 
topics

.

Work with consumer advocate organizations on outreach programs to 
vulnerable populations

.

Consumer health librarians also need to participate in and lobby for 
research on health literacy topics. The Council of Scientific Affairs, Ad 
Hoc Committee on Health Literacy for the Council on Scientific Affairs, 
American Medical Association (JAMA Feb. 10, 1999)) identified the need for 
research on:

.

1.literacy screening

2.methods of health education

3.medical outcomes and economic costs and

4.understanding the casual pathway of how literacy influences health

.

Consumer health librarians can also support the direct needs of health 
information consumers by providing materials that are multi-lingual, 
culturally appropriate and easy to read, and by developing methods and 
materials to teach consumers how to evaluate health information resources, 
especially those found on the Internet.

.

Health Literacy Organizations and Programs

Health Literacy. American Medical Association Foundation.

.

http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/ama-foundation/ 
our-programs/public-health/health-literacy-program.shtml



515 North State Street

Chicago, Illinois 60610

.

Ask Me 3

http://www.npsf.org/askme3/

Sponsored by the Partnership for Clear Health Communication at the 
National Patient Safety Foundation. "The National Patient Safety 
Foundation's mission is to improve the safety of the health care system, 
of which health literacy is a critical component. Understanding that 
communication breakdowns are the leading source of medical errors, NPSF 
will be integrating PCHC's flagship health literacy program, Ask Me 3, 
into its program offerings. Ask Me 3 promotes three simple but essential 
questions that patients should ask their providers in every health care 
interaction: 1)What is my main problem?; 2) What do I need to do?; 3) Why 
is it important for me to do this?

.


National Literacy and Health Program. Canadian Public Health Association.

http://www.nlhp.cpha.ca/

Promotes awareness among health professionals of the links between 
literacy and health.

.

Health Literacy Studies

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/healthliteracy/index.html

Harvard School of Public Health
Department of Society, Human Development and Health
677 Huntington Avenue, 7th Floor
Boston, MA 02115 USA

.


National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy
Harvard University Graduate School of Education
Nichols House
7 Appian Way
Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
Phone: 617-432-3914
Fax: 617-432-3123
Email: [log in to unmask]

.

Health Literacy Center, University of New England

http://www.une.edu/hlit/

Area Health Education Center Program
11 Hills Beach Road
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone: 207-283-0171

.

Health Literacy Consulting

http://www.healthliteracy.com/

Helen Osborne, M.Ed., OTR/L
31 Highland Street, Suite 201
Natick, MA 01760
Phone: 508-653-1199
Fax: 508-650-9492
Email: [log in to unmask]

.

Health Literacy Month

http://www.healthliteracy.com/hlmonth/

Helen Osborne, M.Ed., OTR/L
31 Highland Street, Suite 201
Natick, MA 01760
Phone: 508-653-1199
Fax: 508-650-9492
Email: [log in to unmask]

.

Literacy and Health Project

http://www.opha.on.ca/resources/i-n.html#literacy

Ontario Public Health Association and Frontier College
Phone: 416-367-3313.

.

Medical Library Association

http://www.mlanet.org/resources/healthlit/

65 East Wacker Place, Suite 1900
Chicago, IL 60601-7246
Tel., 312.419.9094
Fax, 312.419.8950
[log in to unmask]

.


A national organization of health science librarians. The Health 
Information Toolkit includes information for Health and Information 
Professions, and information for Consumers.

.

Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL)

http://www.literacy.ca/about/about.htm

A national non-profit organization representing literacy coalitions, 
organizations, and individuals

.

National Institute for Literacy

http://www.nifl.gov/

1775 I Street N.W., Suite 730
Washington DC 20006-2401
Phone: 202-233-2025

.

Office of Minority Health
http://www.omhrc.gov/
PO Box 37337
Washington DC, 20013-773
Phone: 800-444-6472

.

Pfizer Clear Health Communication Initiative

http://www.pfizerhealthliteracy.com/

.

University of Virginia School of Medicine Health Literacy Curriculum

http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/som-hlc/

PO Box 800325
Charlottesville, VA 22908
434-924-2629
Phone: 434-924-2629
Fax: 434-982-2597

.

World Education, Health and Literacy Initiative

http://www.worlded.org/

44 Farnsworth Street
Boston, MA 02111-1211
Phone: 617-482-9485
Fax: 617-482-0617

.

.


Bibliographies, Webliographies, and Web Resources




Understanding Health Literacy and its Barriers. National Library of 
Medicine.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/healthliteracybarriers.html

Current Bibliographies in Medicine 2004-1

.

MEDLINE/PubMed Search and Health Literacy Information Resources.

National Library of Medicine.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/services/health_literacy.html

.

Proceedings of the Surgeon General's Workshop on Improving Health Literacy
September 7, 2006, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/healthliteracy/toc.htm

.

Annotated Bibliographies: Health, Communication and Literacy

http://www.centreforliteracy.qc.ca/pubs.htm#biblios

The Centre for Literacy of Quebec
3040 Sherbrooke Street West, Room 4B. 1-6,
Montreal, QC H3Z 1A4, Canada
Phone: 514-931-8731 Fax: 514-931-5181
Email: [log in to unmask]

.

Health and Literacy Compendium

http://www.worlded.org/us/health/docs/comp/index.html

Contains over 80 citations to print and web materials that cover the 
links between health status and literacy status; how to assess and develop 
easy-to-read health education materials; how to teach health with literacy 
in mind, and how to teach literacy using health content; background 
information on literacy and "participatory" education methodologies; 
curricula and materials on a variety of health topics for adults with 
limited literacy skills; bibliographies and databases of easy-to-read or 
multi-lingual health information and brochures; bibliographies and 
databases of materials about the connections between health and literacy.

.

Health Literacy. Michigan Adult Learning & Technology Center.

http://www.malt.cmich.edu/healthlit.htm

Sections: Research about the literacy problem and designing easy-to-read 
materials; the health literacy problem and the solution; legal writing in 
plain English/legal implications of plain English; focus groups and field 
testing; impact of marginal literacy on health and healthcare; 
communications planning; sources of easy-to read patient education 
materials; sources for clip art.

.

Health Communication. Partners in Information Access for the Public Health 
Workforce.

http://phpartners.org/hp/health_comm.html

Special PubMed queries on Healthy People 2010 topics

.

.

Health Literacy Listservs

The Health Literacy Discussion List

http://lincs.ed.gov/mailman/listinfo/Healthliteracy

Complete the form on the Literacy Information and Communication System 
(LINCS) website.

.

Health Literacy Consulting

http://www.healthliteracy.com/newsletter.asp

Select "What's New" list - a free monthly message about the latest 
articles and tips, and/or "Countdown to Health Literacy Month".

.

.

.

Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
[log in to unmask]
http://daviddillard.businesscard2.com

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
Index: http://tinyurl.com/myxb4w
http://groups.google.com/group/net-gold?hl=en


General Internet & Print Resources
http://guides.temple.edu/general-internet
COUNTRIES
http://guides.temple.edu/general-country-info
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/EMPLOYMENT
TOURISM
http://guides.temple.edu/tourism
DISABILITIES
http://guides.temple.edu/DISABILITIES
INDOOR GARDENING
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/
The Russell Conwell Learning Center Research Guide:
THE COLLEGE LEARNING CENTER
http://tinyurl.com/yae7w79

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://tinyurl.com/36qd2o
and also http://gallery.me.com/neemers1
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/
Twitter: davidpdillard


Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl
http://tinyurl.com/ou53aw


INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/
http://groups.google.com/group/indoor-gardening-and-urban-gardening


SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.google.com/group/sport-med
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html


HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/
http://groups.google.com/group/healthrecsport
http://healthrecsport.jiglu.com/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145

.

.

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

March 2020
February 2020
December 2019
September 2019
July 2019
June 2019
April 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
December 2008
October 2008
September 2008
May 2008
February 2008
November 2007
October 2007
August 2007
June 2007
May 2007
March 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager