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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  August 2010

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION August 2010

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Subject:

Re: saints of the day 8. August

From:

George FERZOCO <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 8 Aug 2010 13:06:28 +0100

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Very interesting, Tom -- thank you.

On the face of it, the Ancona Ciriaco isn't the Massa Marittima  
Ciriaco, as the former was supposed to be a local bishop, and the  
former was the deacon-martyr described in John's post. But I've  
learned from Graham Jones and others that cults could shift due to  
changing (mis)uses of saints' names, so this in itself wouldn't  
negate a connection between the two places. Perhaps they were at  
different ends of a cross-peninsular trade route.

The importance of the Roman church may show that a major protector of  
that church had a connection with south-west Tuscany -- to be  
investigated!

George

--
George FERZOCO
[log in to unmask]


On 8 Aug 2010, at 12:46, Tom Izbicki wrote:

> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and  
> culture
>
> Correction:
>
>  The cathedral in Ancona is called S. Ciriaco.
>
> S. Ciriaco alle Terme, a titular church of cardinals in Rome, is now
> [replaced by] S. Maria in via Lata al Corso [as] the stational  
> church for
> Tuesday of the
>> 5th week in Lent.
>>
>> Tom Izbicki
>>
>>> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and
>>> culture
>>>
>>> Today (8. August) is the feast day of:
>>>
>>> 1)  Cyriacus, Largus, and Smaragdus (?).  C., L., and S. are  
>>> martyrs of
>>> the Via Ostiensis, entered under today in the _Depositio  
>>> martyrum_ of
>>> the
>>> Chronographer of 354.  C. was early confused with the C. of 16.  
>>> March,
>>> seemingly a Greek saint.  When he, L., and S. became characters  
>>> in the
>>> legendary _Passio sancti Marcelli_ (BHL 5234, 5235; C. as a  
>>> deacon, L.
>>> and
>>> S. as his housemates in life and companions in death), their  
>>> martyrdom,
>>> supposedly occurring under Maximian during the Great Persecution,  
>>> was in
>>> this story said to have taken place on that earlier date.  But the
>>> author
>>> of the Passio, aware too of their celebration on this day in August,
>>> implicitly converted the latter into a translation feast  
>>> commemorating
>>> what the Passio describes as their solemn reburial by pope St.  
>>> Marcellus
>>> I.  In St. Ado and in Usuard their martyrdom is recorded on both  
>>> days.
>>> Prior to 2001 the RM had opted for the March date made  
>>> traditional by
>>> the
>>> Passio.
>>>
>>> An expandable view of the martyrdom of C., L., and S. as depicted  
>>> in a
>>> late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the _Legenda aurea_
>>> (San
>>> Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 97r):
>>> http://tinyurl.com/25vc7po
>>>
>>> To distinguish him from one or more of the numerous other saints  
>>> of this
>>> name, C. is also known as Cyriac of Rome.  Thanks to an episode the
>>> Passio, he became known as someone to invoke in cases of demonic
>>> possession.  Venerated singly, C. enjoyed considerable popularity in
>>> northern Europe from the Ottonian period onward and became one of  
>>> the
>>> Fourteen Holy Helpers of the later Middle Ages.
>>>
>>> Devotion to C. has been especially strong in Germany.  In the tenth
>>> century a relic believed to be his was brought to today's  
>>> Gernrode (Lkr.
>>> Quedlinburg) in Sachsen-Anhalt and there deposited in a newly built
>>> monastic church for women that had been dedicated to St. Mary and  
>>> St.
>>> Peter.  In time the church became known instead as that of C. (who,
>>> after
>>> all, was present -- at least in part -- in the confessio).  Herewith
>>> views
>>> of Gernrode's Stiftskirche St. Cyriakus (west portions rebuilt in  
>>> the
>>> twelfth century):
>>>
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2uestr8
>>> http://www.stadt-gernrode.de/index.php?id=155033000492
>>> http://tinyurl.com/zehft
>>> http://tinyurl.com/hrbcq
>>> http://tinyurl.com/zjdsf
>>> http://tinyurl.com/ht9mg
>>> http://tinyurl.com/zyl3z
>>> http://tinyurl.com/hkymy
>>>
>>> This church contains a Holy Sepulcher (later eleventh-/early
>>> twelfth-century), described here:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/oc6ro
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2v7q67r
>>> http://tinyurl.com/fyrf3
>>> http://tinyurl.com/h7dh7
>>> http://tinyurl.com/g7j9a
>>> http://tinyurl.com/o5ch3
>>> There is also a mid-twelfth-century baptismal font:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/jsryz
>>>
>>> Other dedications to C.:
>>> 1.  Pfarrkirche St. Cyriakus (twelfth-/thirteenth-century;
>>> rebuilt,seventeenth century), Marburg-Bauerbach, Hessen:
>>> http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Bauerbach_church.jpg
>>> 2.  Paroissiale (ancienne abbatiale) Saint-Cyriaque
>>> (twelfth-/eighteenth-century), Altorf (Bas-Rhin), Alsace:
>>> http://perso.orange.fr/jean-marie.poncelet/altorf.htm
>>> 3.  St. Cyriakus Propstei-Kirche (1250-1490; later additions and
>>> modifications), Duderstadt, Niedersachsen:
>>> Account:
>>> http://www.st-cyriakus.city-map.de/3.html
>>> Views:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/nemhh
>>> 4.  St. Cyriakus Kirche (mostly fifteenth-century), Weeze (Kreis  
>>> Kleve),
>>> Nordrhein-Westfalen:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2fdjogh
>>>
>>>
>>> 2)  Secundus, Carpophorus, Victorinus, and Severianus (?).  S.,  
>>> C., V.,
>>> and S. are Roman martyrs entered under today in the _Depositio  
>>> martyrum_
>>> of the Chronographer of 354.  The (pseudo-)Hieronymian  
>>> Martyrology also
>>> enters them under today and adds that they were buried at Alba at  
>>> the
>>> fifteenth milestone on the Via Appia.  That datum accords with the
>>> location of the Catacombe di San Senatore at today's Albano  
>>> Laziale (RM)
>>> in Lazio.  An Italian-language page on that complex is here:
>>> http://www.romasotterranea.it/catacombadissenatore.html
>>> and a multi-page, illustrated, Italian-language site on the complex
>>> begins
>>> here:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/6a3gjg
>>>
>>> The complex contains a number of frescoes of late antique and early
>>> medieval date, mostly in very poor condition.  The first one  
>>> shown in
>>> this
>>> page has been dated to the late fifth century and depicts six  
>>> figures
>>> flanking a seated Christ (those at either end are interpreted as  
>>> donors;
>>> the other flanking figures are thought to represent S., C., V.,  
>>> and S.):
>>> http://tinyurl.com/67w24j
>>>
>>> In the legendary Passio of St. Sebastian (BHL 7543) S., C., V.,  
>>> and S.
>>> are
>>> military martyrs under Diocletian, buried in the cemetery of Sts.
>>> Marcellinus and Peter on the Via Labicana.  With a change in  
>>> feast day
>>> from 8. August to 8. November, they thus became one of the two  
>>> groups of
>>> saints known severally and jointly as the Four Crowned Martyrs  
>>> and were
>>> so
>>> commemorated under 8. November in the RM until its revision of 2001.
>>>
>>> Up in Lombardy, a poorly documented group of saints named  
>>> Carpophorus,
>>> Exanthus, Cassius, Severus, Secundus, and Licinius appears  
>>> legendarily
>>> in
>>> the originally early medieval Passio of St. Fidelis of Como as  
>>> fellow
>>> soldiers martyred under Maximian in various places; the same  
>>> saints also
>>> appear at the beginning of the Passio of St. Alexander of Bergamo as
>>> well
>>> as in some later witnesses of the (pseudo-)Hieronymian  
>>> Martyrology where
>>> they are entered under 7. August as martyrs of Milan.  Whereas  
>>> each of
>>> these could be in origin a very poorly documented north Italian  
>>> saint,
>>> there is a strong suspicion (shared, e.g., by Lanzoni and by  
>>> Delehaye)
>>> that the group as such is fictitious and that it arose from local
>>> veneration of relics, some of which may have come from afar.  In  
>>> this
>>> view, the northern Carpophorus, Severus, and Secundus are likely  
>>> to have
>>> been today's C., S., and S. celebrated one day earlier in Lombardy.
>>>
>>> Herewith the Italia nell'Arte Medievale page on Como's originally
>>> eleventh- and twelfth-century basilica di San Carpoforo:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/33psa4
>>>
>>>
>>> 3)  Eusebius of Milan (d. prob. 462).  According to his epitaph  
>>> by his
>>> friend St. Ennodius (_Carmen_ 84), E. was a Greek of Eastern  
>>> origin.  He
>>> is first attested as bishop of Milan in 449, when he took part at  
>>> Rome
>>> in
>>> an anti-Eutychian synod convened by pope St. Leo I.  E. had to  
>>> endure
>>> the
>>> Hunnic capture and sack of Milan under Attila in 452; a speech by an
>>> unknown prelate on the occasion of his re-building of that city's
>>> cathedral is transmitted among the works of St. Maximus of Turin.
>>> Ennodius highlights E.'s sympathy for poor and rich alike [TAN: the
>>> special theme of next year's International Medieval Congress at  
>>> Leeds is
>>> 'Poor...Rich'].
>>>
>>> E. was buried in Milan's basilica di San Lorenzo.  The oldest  
>>> catalogues
>>> of Milan's bishops have him laid to rest on this day.  Later ones  
>>> use 9.
>>> August instead and the early fourteenth-century _Liber notitiae
>>> sanctorum
>>> Mediolani_ records him under 12. August, the date also used for  
>>> E. in
>>> the
>>> RM prior to the latter's revision of 2001.
>>>
>>>
>>> 4)  Aemilianus of Cyzicus (d. after 815).  A. succeeded to the  
>>> see of
>>> Cyzicus in the late eighth century.  An iconophile, he was exiled  
>>> after
>>> having opposed the emperor Leo III at the latter's synod of 815,  
>>> where
>>> the
>>> patriarch St. Nicephorus I was deposed and iconolatry was condemned.
>>> The
>>> year of his death is unknown.
>>>
>>>
>>> 5)  Altmann of Passau (d. 1091).  According to his earlier
>>> twelfth-century
>>> Vita (BHL 313), A. came from a noble family of Westphalia and was
>>> educated
>>> at the cathedral school at Paderborn, which latter he then headed  
>>> for
>>> many
>>> years before becoming Henry III's royal chaplain at Aachen.  His
>>> contacts
>>> with the royal family led to his being named bishop of Passau in  
>>> 1065.
>>> In
>>> that see, which then included much of Austria, he showed his Reform
>>> inclinations by founding (or by converting from other forms of joint
>>> life)
>>> communities of Canons Regular and by being Gregory VII's leading
>>> supporter
>>> among the German bishops during the Investiture Controversy  In  
>>> 1078 A.
>>> was forced to leave Passau.  He returned in 1081, only to be  
>>> deposed in
>>> 1085 by the imperial party's bishops, who installed at Passau a
>>> succession
>>> of (anti)bishops in his stead.  A. spent the remainder of his  
>>> life in
>>> the
>>> eastern part of his diocese, under the protection of Leopold II of
>>> Austria.
>>>
>>> A. was laid to rest at one of his foundations, the monastery of  
>>> Canons
>>> Regular at G÷ttweig.  Somewhat ironically for a great promoter of  
>>> Canons
>>> Regular, within a few years of his death this house was converted  
>>> into a
>>> Benedictine abbey.  A.'s Vita, which was written there, presents him
>>> both
>>> as a defender of church interests against rapacious lords lay and
>>> ecclesiastical and as a thaumaturge.  A.'s cult is also attested for
>>> Heilgenkreuz in the twelfth century, for Lilienfeld in the  
>>> thirteenth,
>>> and
>>> for Melk by at least the end of the Middle  Ages. His cult is  
>>> said to
>>> have
>>> been confirmed, presumably for the Benedictines and the  
>>> Augustinians, by
>>> Boniface VIII (1300) and by Alexander VI (1496).  In the late  
>>> nineteenth
>>> century it was extended to the dioceses of Linz and Passau.  A.,
>>> recognized as a Saint, entered the RM only in the the 2004  
>>> edition of
>>> its
>>> revision of 2001.
>>>
>>> A. as depicted in a later twelfth-century copy from G÷ttweig of  
>>> Origen's
>>> _Expositio symboli_, showing him as founder (G÷ttweig,  
>>> Stiftsbibliothek,
>>> Cod. 97 rot / 27 schwarz, fol. 1r):
>>> http://www.imareal.oeaw.ac.at/real-t1/imgs/003082.html
>>> A partial view of A.'s tomb in the crypt of the abbey church:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/5tvhjy
>>> A view of A.'s head reliquary at G÷ttweig:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/5qgaqj
>>>
>>>
>>> 6)  Famianus (d. 1150).  F. is the patron saint of Gallese (VT) in
>>> northern Lazio.  According to his Vitae, all of which seem to be  
>>> Early
>>> Modern, he was a native of K÷ln who at a fairly early age  
>>> undertook a
>>> series of pilgrimages that took him to Rome in 1108, to other  
>>> parts of
>>> Italy, and to Compostela.  While in Spain he is said to have been
>>> ordained
>>> priest and to have lived as an hermit at the not-yet-Cistercian  
>>> abbey of
>>> Oseira in Galicia.  The date of F.'s return to Italy is unknown.   
>>> He is
>>> reported to have died on this day at Gallese, where by the late
>>> thirteenth
>>> century there was a full-blown pilgrimage cult in his honor with a
>>> church
>>> that is said to have replaced an oratory at his wonder-working  
>>> grave.
>>>
>>> An illustrated, Italian-language account of Tuscia's basilica di San
>>> Famiano:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/267thlo
>>> Other views (expandable), including one of F.'s eighteenth-century
>>> sarcophagus in the crypt:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2clap8s
>>>
>>>
>>> 7)  Dominic of Caleruega (d. 1221).  D. is also known as D. of Osma
>>> (where
>>> he had been a Canon Regular).  The founder of the Order of  
>>> Preachers, he
>>> was canonized in 1234.  Herewith two views of his tomb in Bologna's
>>> basilica di San Domenico:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2d8ae6l
>>> http://tinyurl.com/j9arl
>>> Several detail views are here:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2f3nosb
>>> Kept behind the tomb is D.'s head reliquary executed in 1383 by the
>>> Bolognese goldsmith Jacopo Roseto:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/3798r6e
>>> http://www.storicamente.org/03pini_link5.htm
>>> A detail view of the central portion:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/s87ya
>>> A twentieth-century reliquary containing what is said to be a  
>>> portion of
>>> D.'s cranium that had been kept at his convent of San Sisto in Rome:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2csfujx
>>>
>>> An expandable view of Honorius III blessing D. and the brethren as
>>> depicted in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the
>>> _Legenda aurea_ (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027,  
>>> fol.
>>> 91v):
>>> http://tinyurl.com/233vch6
>>>
>>> A page of expandable views of earlier fourteenth-century  
>>> depictions of
>>> D.:
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2clnya5
>>>
>>> D. as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century (ca. 1326-1350)
>>> collection
>>> of French-language saint's Lives (Paris, BnF, ms. Franšais 185, fol.
>>> 240v):
>>> http://tinyurl.com/2cjhg62
>>>
>>> D. as depicted in a mid-fourteenth-century (1348) copy of the  
>>> _Legenda
>>> aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris,  
>>> BnF, ms.
>>> Franšais 241, fol. 188v):
>>> http://tinyurl.com/28j4yv9
>>>
>>> D. and fellow Dominicans (some represented punningly as black-and- 
>>> white
>>> dogs, _Dominici canes_) as depicted in a later fourteenth-century  
>>> fresco
>>> (The Way of Salvation; ca. 1365-1368) by Andrea da Firenze  
>>> (Andrea di
>>> Bonaiuto) in the Cappella Spagnuolo in Florence's basilica di Santa
>>> Maria
>>> Novella:
>>> http://www.wga.hu/art/a/andrea/firenze/2right3.jpg
>>> http://tinyurl.com/379rt8n
>>>
>>> D. as depicted in a later fifteenth-century glass window Holy  
>>> Trinity
>>> Church, Long Melford (Suffolk; photo by Gordon Plumb):
>>> http://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2226559836/
>>>
>>>
>>> 8)  William of Castellammare di Stabia (Bl.; d. 1364).  Our  
>>> information
>>> about this Franciscan missionary and less well known holy person  
>>> of the
>>> Regno comes from early historians of his order.  He is said to  
>>> have been
>>> arrested at Gaza for publicly defaming the Prophet, to have declined
>>> suggestions that he apostasize, and to have been executed by  
>>> being sawn
>>> in
>>> two, with his breviary then burned along with his corpse.
>>>
>>> Best,
>>> John Dillon
>>> (an older post revised and with the additions of Eusebius of  
>>> Milan and
>>> Bl.
>>> William of Castellammare di Stabia)
>>>
>>> ******************************************************************** 
>>> **
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>>
>>
>
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