JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  August 2010

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION August 2010

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 9. August

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 9 Aug 2010 00:48:06 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (108 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (9. August) is the feast day of:

1)  Secundianus, Marcellianus, and Verianus (d. 250 or 251, supposedly, or 258, supposedly).  S., M., and V. are martyrs of Tuscia in today's northwestern Lazio and southern Tuscany.  The oldest witness to the (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology, which records them under today, places their death simply in Tuscia.  Some later witnesses specify a place that has been interpreted as the former Castrumnovum near today's Santa Marinella (RM) as does also the third of the three sequential versions of their originally sixth- or seventh-century legendary Passio (BHL 7550-7552).  The first version locates their martyrdom at Centumcellae, i.e. today's Civitavecchia (RM), while the second gives only a milestone indication on the Via Aurelia that matches neither of the other two specified locales.

In the Passio the three saints are well-educated pagan persecutors of Christians under Decius.  Observing their victims' willingness to die painfully rather than to live easily and considering the (supposed) Christian prophecy in Vergil's Fourth Eclogue (five of whose verses are quoted in the Passio), they convert, are baptized by a priest Timotheus, and are confirmed by pope Xistus (i.e., the recently celebrated Sixtus II, whose martyrdom the highly influential late antique _Passio sancti Polychronii_ incorrectly places under Decius rather than under Valerian).  S. is arrested; M. and V. identify themselves as his co-religionists and are arrested as well.  Brought before a magistrate, they spit on an idol that then topples over and breaks.  Whereupon the martyrs are first tortured and then executed by decapitation.

S., M., and V. were entered in the second edition of Usuard's Martyrology with an elogium based on their Passio.  From Usuard they entered the RM, remaining there until 2001.  They continue to be celebrated at various locales in Tuscia where their cult was strong medievally, e.g. at Chiusi (SI), where a co-cathedral of the diocese of Montepulciano – Chiusi – Pienza is dedicated to S. and has relics believed to be his, at Tarquinia (VT), where S. is the city's patron, and at Tuscania (VT), whose church of San Pietro is named as their cult site in the third version of their Passio and where all three, said to be buried there, are the local patron saints.  Herewith three illustrated, Italian-language pages on the originally eleventh- and twelfth-century chiesa di San Pietro in Tuscania:
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiesa_di_San_Pietro_(Tuscania)
http://tinyurl.com/5stcuu
http://tinyurl.com/2atw5xs2


2)  Romanus of Rome (d. 258, supposedly).  R. is a martyr of the Via Tiburtina, where his grave is first recorded with certainty in the seventh-century guidebooks for pilgrims to Rome.  Its location near that of tomorrow's St. Lawrence facilitated the view, reflected in the not entirely reliable _Liber Pontificalis_ and in the synthesizing and highly unreliable _Passio sancti Polychronii_, that he was that saint's companion in martyrdom.  In the _Liber Pontificalis_ R. is one of several named ecclesiastics said to have been arrested with L.  That part of the aforementioned Passio that deals with R. (at least three versions: BHL 7309d-f) makes him instead a soldier who is assigned to guard the captive L., converts to Christianity, is baptized by L., proclaims his faith before Decius, and is promptly executed.  In the ninth century St. Ado and Usuard entered R. under this day in their martyrologies in his persona as a soldier.

L. baptizing R. as depicted in a panel of the earlier thirteenth-century St. Lawrence window in the cathédrale Saint-Étienne in Bourges:
http://tinyurl.com/34w94lh

R. being executed before Decius as depicted in a panel of the earlier thirteenth-century St. Lawrence window in the cathédrale Saint-Étienne in Bourges:
http://tinyurl.com/2uan7yh

R. as depicted in an earlier fifteenth-century (ca. 1414) breviary for the Use of Paris (Châteauroux, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 2, fol. 269v):
http://tinyurl.com/2eatgd6

L. baptizing R. as depicted in a later fifteenth-century (after 1482) Roman breviary of French origin (Clermont-Ferrand, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 69, fol. 504v):
http://tinyurl.com/2c7spjt

The originally thirteenth-century (ex-)chiesa di San Romano in Lucca, consecrated in 1281, secularized in 1866, and now a civic auditorium, succeeded an oratory first attested from 792.  Herewith an illustrated, Italian-language account of this church, which once housed relics believed to be those of today's R.:
http://tinyurl.com/6b5ft4
Other views :
http://tinyurl.com/23oudf3
Another former home of relics believed to be those of today's R is the tenth- to fifteenth-century (ex-)chiesa di San Romano in Ferrara, now the home of the cathedral museum:
http://www.artecultura.fe.it/index.phtml?id=152
http://tinyurl.com/65j26x
http://tinyurl.com/5s67bd


3)  Falco of Palena (Bl.; d. early 11th cent., supposedly).  This less well known holy person of the Regno is said in the new edition (2001) of the Roman Martyrology to have been an hermit who died at Palena in Calabria.  But there does not seem to be a Palena in Calabria and the Palena where F. has been venerated since at least the fourteenth century is situated in Abruzzo's Chieti province.

F. in included in the cult of the Sette Santi Fratelli ('Seven Holy Little Brothers') whose individual members are venerated in different Abruzzese towns.  Brief Italian-language accounts of them are here:
http://www.casoli.info/casoli/prata/prata02.htm
They are local holy men -- traditionally viewed as hermits -- whose cult (confirmed in 1893) was promoted by Franciscans of Abruzzo who honored them as their predecessors in this region.

According to the _Croniche ed antichità di Calabria_ of Fra Girolamo Marafioti (Padova, 1601), who drew on accounts furnished by correspondents in Benevento, F. and his colleagues in the cult were Greek-rite monks from Calabria who moved to today's Abruzzo as a community under a hegumen called Hilarion (one of the 'Seven', who in some accounts are as many as nine) and who after the latter's death in the pontificate of Eugenius IV (1431-47) became hermits in separate locations along the great chain of central Appennine peaks now known as the Maiella.  But at least some were venerated earlier than this.

Twentieth-century scholars resolved the difficulty by positing that Marafioti had confused Eugenius IV with the earlier Sergius IV (1009-1012) and by then hypothesizing that F. and his colleagues had come from Greek-rite monasteries in Calabria that had been abandoned in later tenth century in consequence of Islamic raids.  Were there any earlier documentation for the belief that F. et al. were Greeks from the south, this view would be more plausible.

The chances are excellent that these are local saints whom subsequent community memory first adapted to the paradigm of hermits of the Maiella (of whom there were a great many) and later to the well-known paradigm of The Saint Who Has Come to Us from Afar.  F.'s original cult locus appears to have been a now vanished settlement near Palena called Sant'Egidio.  A church dedicated to Sant'Egidio and to San Falco is said to have existed there at least as early as 1358.  In 1383 F.'s putative remains were translated to Palena's church of Sant'Antonino, which later came to be known as that of Sant'Antonino e San Falco.  Its successors have been known as as San Falco and, most recently, as San Falco e Sant'Antonino (according to the Diocese of Sulmona-Valva, the parish is that of Sant'Antonino Martire).  Some of F.'s relics are now preserved in the bust shown here:
http://digilander.iol.it/palena/proc02.jpg
More relics, including clothing F. is said to have worn (the apparel of an earlier cult statue?) are here:
http://www.casoli.info/casoli/prata/reliquie_s_falco.jpg
http://www.casoli.info/casoli/prata/tunica_s_falco.jpg
Until relatively recently F. was also celebrated liturgically on 13. January, his traditional _dies natalis_.  Did today's feast originally commemorate his translation in 1383?


4)  Maurilius of Rouen (Bl.; d. 1067).  Our chief sources for M. (in French, Maurile) are a nearly contemporary account in the _Gesta archiepiscoporum Rotomagensium_ and mentions in the _Historia ecclesiastica_ of Ordericus Vitalis.  He is said to have been a native of the diocese of Reims.  After study at Liège M. was head of the cathedral school at Halberstadt before becoming (by 1030) a monk of Fécamp.  From there he went to Tuscany, where he was an hermit at Vallombrosa and then abbot of a Benedictine house in Florence.

Having returned to Fécamp, the by now broadly experienced and well traveled B. was made archbishop of Rouen in 1055.  In that capacity he held synods condemning simony and nicolaism, worked for civic peace in his region, encouraged St. Anselm in 1060 to become a monk of Bec, and presided at the dedications of both the cathedral of Rouen (1063; almost completely destroyed by fire in 1200) and the abbey church at Jumièges (1067).  Two sites on the remains of the latter (at the second, for more views click on "Abbey Church of Notre-Dame"):
http://www.romanes.com/Jumiege/
http://tinyurl.com/6mnvpr

M.'s cult seems never to have been confirmed papally.  He is entered under today (his _dies natalis_) in the Benedictine Martyrology.


5)  John of Salerno (Bl.; d. after 1231).  Our principal sources for this less well known holy person of the Regno are his late fifteenth-century Vita (BHL 4434) by Giovanni Caroli, a priest of Florence's Dominican convent of Santa Maria Novella, and additional documentation compiled in 1756 and 1757 for possible papal recognition of his cult.  According to Caroli, J. was born at Salerno to a noble family of Norman origin.  At the age of fifteen he was sent to complete his studies at Bologna.  In 1219, having probably already obtained his doctorate and having been ordained priest, he made his profession as a Dominican there.  Sent in the same year to Florence with eleven companions to establish a convent there, he worked from various locations until in 1221 he received the then little church of Santa Maria Novella (previously known as Santa Maria delle Vigne) from cardinal Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, a relative of Innocent III and a promoter of the work of both St. Francis a
nd St. Dominic.

At Florence J. was both an effective fund-raiser and an effective preacher, especially against "Patarene" heretics who had organized a sort of counter-church.  After cardinal Ugolino had become pope Gregory IX he appointed J. papal inquisitor for Florence and further charged him and two fellow Dominicans with the reformation of Benedictine abbey of Sant'Antimo near Montalcino (SI) in southern Tuscany.  Probably shortly after this J. founded in the vicinity of Santa Maria Novella the first Dominican house in Florence, San Jacopo a Ripoli.  J. is recorded as prior through 1232; the year of his death is unknown.  He now reposes under the main altar of Santa Maria Novella <http://tinyurl.com/2afg69x>.  J.'s cult was confirmed at the level of Beatus in 1783.  

The formerly Benedictine abbey of Sant'Antimo near Montalcino is dedicated to St. Anthimus of Rome (11. May).  Already in existence in 814, it was greatly enriched early in the twelfth century, entering upon a fairly brief "golden age" in which a huge abbey church was built right next to its much smaller Carolingian predecessor.  An English-language account of its history is here:
http://www.montalcino.net/sant_antimo.htm
and collections of views are are here (in the menu at right click on "maxifoto"):
http://www.antimo.it/pagine/08_FOTOGRAFIE.html
and here (not expandable):
http://tinyurl.com/q35db
For those who wish to spend more time learning about the place (now serviced by Premonstratensians), illustrated, English-language historical and artistic tours of the abbey begin here:
http://www.antimo.it/pagine_en/00FRAME.html

Florence's present basilica di Santa Maria Novella, replacing J.'s _chiesetta_, was begun in the later thirteenth century.  Herewith illustrated English-language and Italian-language pages on this monument (familiar to many because it's opposite Florence's main train station):
http://tinyurl.com/6ou7sh
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_Novella


6)  Richard Bere (Bl.; d. 1537).  Said to have been a nephew of the Richard Bere who was abbot of Glastonbury (d. 1525), B. (also Beer) studied law before becoming a priest.  He was a choir monk of the London Charterhouse when it was dissolved in 1537 and was one of the English Carthusians imprisoned in May of that year for refusing to subscribe the Oath of Supremacy.  Within a few months he had died of illness or starvation.  B. was one of fifty-four English martyrs beatified together in 1886.

The fabric of London's Carthusian priory of the Salutation of the Mother of God, founded in 1371, was greatly transformed following this house's dissolution.  The Norfolk Cloister, shown here, was built in the early 1570s.  But the rubble wall at left is a survivor from the medieval Charterhouse:
http://tinyurl.com/274zx83
The one remaining entrance from the cloister to a monk's cell of later fourteenth-century construction (excavation following the fire-bombing of 1941 led to the discovery of the cell's original layout):
http://tinyurl.com/2fpr9sw
http://tinyurl.com/282xwxu

Best,
John Dillon
(matter from an older post revised and with the additions of Bl. John of Salerno and Bl. Richard Bere)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager