medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
The cathedral in Ancona is called S. Ciriaco.
S. Ciriaco alle Terme, a titular church of cardinals in Rome, is now
[replaced by] S. Maria in via Lata al Corso [as] the stational church for
Tuesday of the
> 5th week in Lent.
> Tom Izbicki
>> medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and
>> Today (8. August) is the feast day of:
>> 1) Cyriacus, Largus, and Smaragdus (?). C., L., and S. are martyrs of
>> the Via Ostiensis, entered under today in the _Depositio martyrum_ of
>> Chronographer of 354. C. was early confused with the C. of 16. March,
>> seemingly a Greek saint. When he, L., and S. became characters in the
>> legendary _Passio sancti Marcelli_ (BHL 5234, 5235; C. as a deacon, L.
>> S. as his housemates in life and companions in death), their martyrdom,
>> supposedly occurring under Maximian during the Great Persecution, was in
>> this story said to have taken place on that earlier date. But the
>> of the Passio, aware too of their celebration on this day in August,
>> implicitly converted the latter into a translation feast commemorating
>> what the Passio describes as their solemn reburial by pope St. Marcellus
>> I. In St. Ado and in Usuard their martyrdom is recorded on both days.
>> Prior to 2001 the RM had opted for the March date made traditional by
>> An expandable view of the martyrdom of C., L., and S. as depicted in a
>> late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the _Legenda aurea_
>> Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 97r):
>> To distinguish him from one or more of the numerous other saints of this
>> name, C. is also known as Cyriac of Rome. Thanks to an episode the
>> Passio, he became known as someone to invoke in cases of demonic
>> possession. Venerated singly, C. enjoyed considerable popularity in
>> northern Europe from the Ottonian period onward and became one of the
>> Fourteen Holy Helpers of the later Middle Ages.
>> Devotion to C. has been especially strong in Germany. In the tenth
>> century a relic believed to be his was brought to today's Gernrode (Lkr.
>> Quedlinburg) in Sachsen-Anhalt and there deposited in a newly built
>> monastic church for women that had been dedicated to St. Mary and St.
>> Peter. In time the church became known instead as that of C. (who,
>> all, was present -- at least in part -- in the confessio). Herewith
>> of Gernrode's Stiftskirche St. Cyriakus (west portions rebuilt in the
>> twelfth century):
>> This church contains a Holy Sepulcher (later eleventh-/early
>> twelfth-century), described here:
>> There is also a mid-twelfth-century baptismal font:
>> Other dedications to C.:
>> 1. Pfarrkirche St. Cyriakus (twelfth-/thirteenth-century;
>> rebuilt,seventeenth century), Marburg-Bauerbach, Hessen:
>> 2. Paroissiale (ancienne abbatiale) Saint-Cyriaque
>> (twelfth-/eighteenth-century), Altorf (Bas-Rhin), Alsace:
>> 3. St. Cyriakus Propstei-Kirche (1250-1490; later additions and
>> modifications), Duderstadt, Niedersachsen:
>> 4. St. Cyriakus Kirche (mostly fifteenth-century), Weeze (Kreis Kleve),
>> 2) Secundus, Carpophorus, Victorinus, and Severianus (?). S., C., V.,
>> and S. are Roman martyrs entered under today in the _Depositio martyrum_
>> of the Chronographer of 354. The (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology also
>> enters them under today and adds that they were buried at Alba at the
>> fifteenth milestone on the Via Appia. That datum accords with the
>> location of the Catacombe di San Senatore at today's Albano Laziale (RM)
>> in Lazio. An Italian-language page on that complex is here:
>> and a multi-page, illustrated, Italian-language site on the complex
>> The complex contains a number of frescoes of late antique and early
>> medieval date, mostly in very poor condition. The first one shown in
>> page has been dated to the late fifth century and depicts six figures
>> flanking a seated Christ (those at either end are interpreted as donors;
>> the other flanking figures are thought to represent S., C., V., and S.):
>> In the legendary Passio of St. Sebastian (BHL 7543) S., C., V., and S.
>> military martyrs under Diocletian, buried in the cemetery of Sts.
>> Marcellinus and Peter on the Via Labicana. With a change in feast day
>> from 8. August to 8. November, they thus became one of the two groups of
>> saints known severally and jointly as the Four Crowned Martyrs and were
>> commemorated under 8. November in the RM until its revision of 2001.
>> Up in Lombardy, a poorly documented group of saints named Carpophorus,
>> Exanthus, Cassius, Severus, Secundus, and Licinius appears legendarily
>> the originally early medieval Passio of St. Fidelis of Como as fellow
>> soldiers martyred under Maximian in various places; the same saints also
>> appear at the beginning of the Passio of St. Alexander of Bergamo as
>> as in some later witnesses of the (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology where
>> they are entered under 7. August as martyrs of Milan. Whereas each of
>> these could be in origin a very poorly documented north Italian saint,
>> there is a strong suspicion (shared, e.g., by Lanzoni and by Delehaye)
>> that the group as such is fictitious and that it arose from local
>> veneration of relics, some of which may have come from afar. In this
>> view, the northern Carpophorus, Severus, and Secundus are likely to have
>> been today's C., S., and S. celebrated one day earlier in Lombardy.
>> Herewith the Italia nell'Arte Medievale page on Como's originally
>> eleventh- and twelfth-century basilica di San Carpoforo:
>> 3) Eusebius of Milan (d. prob. 462). According to his epitaph by his
>> friend St. Ennodius (_Carmen_ 84), E. was a Greek of Eastern origin. He
>> is first attested as bishop of Milan in 449, when he took part at Rome
>> an anti-Eutychian synod convened by pope St. Leo I. E. had to endure
>> Hunnic capture and sack of Milan under Attila in 452; a speech by an
>> unknown prelate on the occasion of his re-building of that city's
>> cathedral is transmitted among the works of St. Maximus of Turin.
>> Ennodius highlights E.'s sympathy for poor and rich alike [TAN: the
>> special theme of next year's International Medieval Congress at Leeds is
>> E. was buried in Milan's basilica di San Lorenzo. The oldest catalogues
>> of Milan's bishops have him laid to rest on this day. Later ones use 9.
>> August instead and the early fourteenth-century _Liber notitiae
>> Mediolani_ records him under 12. August, the date also used for E. in
>> RM prior to the latter's revision of 2001.
>> 4) Aemilianus of Cyzicus (d. after 815). A. succeeded to the see of
>> Cyzicus in the late eighth century. An iconophile, he was exiled after
>> having opposed the emperor Leo III at the latter's synod of 815, where
>> patriarch St. Nicephorus I was deposed and iconolatry was condemned.
>> year of his death is unknown.
>> 5) Altmann of Passau (d. 1091). According to his earlier
>> Vita (BHL 313), A. came from a noble family of Westphalia and was
>> at the cathedral school at Paderborn, which latter he then headed for
>> years before becoming Henry III's royal chaplain at Aachen. His
>> with the royal family led to his being named bishop of Passau in 1065.
>> that see, which then included much of Austria, he showed his Reform
>> inclinations by founding (or by converting from other forms of joint
>> communities of Canons Regular and by being Gregory VII's leading
>> among the German bishops during the Investiture Controversy In 1078 A.
>> was forced to leave Passau. He returned in 1081, only to be deposed in
>> 1085 by the imperial party's bishops, who installed at Passau a
>> of (anti)bishops in his stead. A. spent the remainder of his life in
>> eastern part of his diocese, under the protection of Leopold II of
>> A. was laid to rest at one of his foundations, the monastery of Canons
>> Regular at Göttweig. Somewhat ironically for a great promoter of Canons
>> Regular, within a few years of his death this house was converted into a
>> Benedictine abbey. A.'s Vita, which was written there, presents him
>> as a defender of church interests against rapacious lords lay and
>> ecclesiastical and as a thaumaturge. A.'s cult is also attested for
>> Heilgenkreuz in the twelfth century, for Lilienfeld in the thirteenth,
>> for Melk by at least the end of the Middle Ages. His cult is said to
>> been confirmed, presumably for the Benedictines and the Augustinians, by
>> Boniface VIII (1300) and by Alexander VI (1496). In the late nineteenth
>> century it was extended to the dioceses of Linz and Passau. A.,
>> recognized as a Saint, entered the RM only in the the 2004 edition of
>> revision of 2001.
>> A. as depicted in a later twelfth-century copy from Göttweig of Origen's
>> _Expositio symboli_, showing him as founder (Göttweig, Stiftsbibliothek,
>> Cod. 97 rot / 27 schwarz, fol. 1r):
>> A partial view of A.'s tomb in the crypt of the abbey church:
>> A view of A.'s head reliquary at Göttweig:
>> 6) Famianus (d. 1150). F. is the patron saint of Gallese (VT) in
>> northern Lazio. According to his Vitae, all of which seem to be Early
>> Modern, he was a native of Köln who at a fairly early age undertook a
>> series of pilgrimages that took him to Rome in 1108, to other parts of
>> Italy, and to Compostela. While in Spain he is said to have been
>> priest and to have lived as an hermit at the not-yet-Cistercian abbey of
>> Oseira in Galicia. The date of F.'s return to Italy is unknown. He is
>> reported to have died on this day at Gallese, where by the late
>> century there was a full-blown pilgrimage cult in his honor with a
>> that is said to have replaced an oratory at his wonder-working grave.
>> An illustrated, Italian-language account of Tuscia's basilica di San
>> Other views (expandable), including one of F.'s eighteenth-century
>> sarcophagus in the crypt:
>> 7) Dominic of Caleruega (d. 1221). D. is also known as D. of Osma
>> he had been a Canon Regular). The founder of the Order of Preachers, he
>> was canonized in 1234. Herewith two views of his tomb in Bologna's
>> basilica di San Domenico:
>> Several detail views are here:
>> Kept behind the tomb is D.'s head reliquary executed in 1383 by the
>> Bolognese goldsmith Jacopo Roseto:
>> A detail view of the central portion:
>> A twentieth-century reliquary containing what is said to be a portion of
>> D.'s cranium that had been kept at his convent of San Sisto in Rome:
>> An expandable view of Honorius III blessing D. and the brethren as
>> depicted in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the
>> _Legenda aurea_ (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol.
>> A page of expandable views of earlier fourteenth-century depictions of
>> D. as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century (ca. 1326-1350)
>> of French-language saint's Lives (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 185, fol.
>> D. as depicted in a mid-fourteenth-century (1348) copy of the _Legenda
>> aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms.
>> Français 241, fol. 188v):
>> D. and fellow Dominicans (some represented punningly as black-and-white
>> dogs, _Dominici canes_) as depicted in a later fourteenth-century fresco
>> (The Way of Salvation; ca. 1365-1368) by Andrea da Firenze (Andrea di
>> Bonaiuto) in the Cappella Spagnuolo in Florence's basilica di Santa
>> D. as depicted in a later fifteenth-century glass window Holy Trinity
>> Church, Long Melford (Suffolk; photo by Gordon Plumb):
>> 8) William of Castellammare di Stabia (Bl.; d. 1364). Our information
>> about this Franciscan missionary and less well known holy person of the
>> Regno comes from early historians of his order. He is said to have been
>> arrested at Gaza for publicly defaming the Prophet, to have declined
>> suggestions that he apostasize, and to have been executed by being sawn
>> two, with his breviary then burned along with his corpse.
>> John Dillon
>> (an older post revised and with the additions of Eusebius of Milan and
>> William of Castellammare di Stabia)
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