JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  April 2010

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION April 2010

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 29. April

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 29 Apr 2010 13:00:50 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (127 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (29. April) is the feast day of:

1)  Torpes (d. ca. 65, supposedly).  T. (In Italian: Torpè, Torpete) is Pisa's legendary martyr and one of that city's medieval patron saints.  According to his brief Passio (BHL 8307), whose earliest witness is of the later ninth century, he was a pagan military officer in Nero's household who when that emperor was at Pisa for the inauguration of a temple of Diana was moved to tell him that Christianity was the true religion.  Foreseeing a rapid and unpleasant end, T. then managed to have himself baptized by the priest Antonius who was living as an hermit on a nearby mountain (in the early fourteenth century, Augustinian hermits would claim A. as one of their antecedents).  Accompanied by an angel, T. returned to Pisa, where he was arrested, tortured, and decapitated.  His body was thrown into the Arno, whence it was later recovered and given honorable burial.  Miracles occurred at the gravesite; after Nero's death T. received a public cult.  Thus far the Passio.

Pisans brought their saint to other places.  Genoa's San Torpete is an eighteenth-century rebuilding of a church originally erected in the eleventh century to serve that city's Pisan community.  It was still the city's Pisan church in 1290 when victorious Genoese suspended from its facade rings taken by force from Pisa's harbor chain.  Probably it was Pisans as well who introduced T.'s cult to Fraxinetum on the coast of Provence, where a church dedicated to him is first recorded from 1056.  The place, now named for T., is today's Saint-Tropez (Var).  T. is its patron saint.  In the local version of events, his body arrived there miraculously by sea.  The town of Torpè (NU) in the former Sardinian judicate of Gallura (Pisan-influenced from the eleventh century into the fourteenth) is also thought to take its name from T.

At Pisa, T.'s cult is especially connected with the churches of San Piero a Grado (the city's old cathedral, located at the spot where T. is said to have been executed) and San Torpè (originally a monastic church, now Carmelite, founded in the later thirteenth century).  It is from his work in the latter that the painter called the Master of San Torpè (active ca. 1295 - ca. 1320 or 1335) derives his appellation.  Many views of San Piero a Grado are here:
http://tinyurl.com/2xswb3

Here are a couple of views of T. (at right, with Pisa's later patron saint, the twelfth-century San Ranieri, at left) in Turino Vanini's Madonna con San Ranieri e San Torpè (1397), kept in Pisa's church of San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno in Pisa:
http://tinyurl.com/yvwk7h
http://tinyurl.com/27rdxr
An Italian-language page on this church:
http://www.stilepisano.it/Pisa_chiesa_di_sanpaolo_a_ripa.htm
Many views of the church (inside and out):
http://www.stilepisano.it/immagini8/index.htm
http://tinyurl.com/d3fc6a
The polygonal brick structure shown on those two pages is the originally eleventh-century cappella di Sant'Agata, formerly attached to San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno.

There is a scholarly edition of later medieval texts on T. in the Pisan vernacular: _Leggenda di san Torpè_, a cura di Mahmoud Salem Elsheikh (Firenze: Presso l’Accademia della Crusca, 1977).


2)  Tychichus (d. 1st cent.).  One of the Seventy (_aliter_, Seventy-Two) Disciples (in Orthodox churches, Apostles), T., a native of Asia Minor, was a trusted companion of St. Paul and the bearer of several of his letters to various churches.  During his second captivity in Rome Paul sent T. to Ephesus (2 Tim 4:12).  The silence of our sources for T. after that allowed several cities to assert that he had been their bishop.

Paul committing a letter to T. as depicted at the outset of 1 Col in the twelfth-century Fressac Bible (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 58 (2), fol. 153r):
http://tinyurl.com/2exl22n

T. as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century (1330s) frescoes of the church of St. Nicholas in the Patriarchate  of Peć at Peć in, depending on one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
http://tinyurl.com/28ay7aq


3)  Severus of Naples (d. 409).  Bishop of the Parthenopean city from 363 to 409, today's less well known saint of the Regno enjoyed the friendship of St. Ambrose of Milan and the esteem of Q. Aurelius Symmachus.  The late ninth-century early portion of the chronicle of Naples' bishops credits him with the erection of four basilicas, one of which is today's rebuilt San Giorgio Maggiore.  S. is now also usually credited with the construction of western Christianity's oldest surviving baptistery, Naples' San Giovanni in Fonte (for fairly obvious reasons, this is by no means the only baptistery so named), though in the later Middle Ages the credit went instead to Constantine the Great.  This monument adjoins the early Christian basilica of Santa Restituta (incorporated into the late medieval and modern cathedral of Naples) and is well worth a visit.  The cathedral's website has a section on the baptistery here:
http://www.duomodinapoli.it
Click on "Battistero" in the menu on the top; then click on the arabic numerals in the upper left for individual sub-pages.  Clicking on the arrows in the right-hand frame will take you through a slide show with views of the baptistery's restored mosaics.

S. also erected a burial church at Naples' catacombs and placed there the relics of Sts. Gervase and Protase sent to him by Ambrose; frescoed remains of their arcosolia (and those of other saints mentioned in early Neapolitan records) were discovered in 1865 under the early modern church of San Severo alla Sanità.  Three expandable but not awfully revealing views of the Catacomba di San Severo will be found on this page:
http://tinyurl.com/eo2hp
S. too was buried there and there he remained until some unknown time before the ninth century, when his remains were transferred to San Giorgio Maggiore, which latter for a while was also known by S.'s name.  In the ninth century he was re-interred in the basilica of San Salvatore (also known as the Stephania), along with Santa Restituta one of the predecessors of today's cathedral.  In 1310 he experienced a further translation, this time to the high altar of the present cathedral; the latter was then still under construction and would not be dedicated until 1314.  At this time S.'s cult was renewed and he became one of the few early saints of Naples proper to be accorded great prominence in the later Middle Ages.

In the later Middle Ages S.'s feast day was 30. April, the date given in the city's episcopal chronicle.  It was changed to today after the discovery in 1742 of the Marble Calendar of Naples with its earlier ninth-century record of S.'s commemoration on 29. April.


4)  Hugh of Cluny (d. 1109).  H. (also Hugh of Semur) came from a comital family in Burgundy.  After some brief military experience he entered Cluny under St. Odilo in 1039.  H. was ordained priest in 1044 and was made prior in 1047.  In 1049 he succeeded O. as the sixth abbot of Cluny.  During his sixty-year rule he was a vigorous reformer, an advisor to the emperors Henry III and Henry IV, and the counsellor of many popes.  Along with Matilda of Tuscany, H. interceded at Canossa with Gregory VII on behalf of Henry IV.  Here's a view of the famous illumination in Vat. lat. 4922 (Donizo's _Vita Mathildis_) showing Henry appealing to H. and to Matilda for aid:
http://www.br-faksimile.de/Mathilde_von_Canossa2.jpg

H. was canonized in 1120.  Gilo's of Cluny's earlier twelfth-century Vita of him (BHL 4007; before 1122) relates H.'s having experienced a vision of the devil being driven away by prayer from the vicinity of Mary and the infant Christ.  This restored twelfth-century capital (images expandable) in the église Saint-Jean-Baptiste in Grandson (canton Vaud) depicting H. and the BVM has been interpreted as a representation of that vision:
http://tinyurl.com/ybodkfj

Four illuminations depicting episodes from H.'s tenure as abbot in an early thirteenth-century copy of Peter the Venerable's _De Cluniacensi coenobio_ (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 17716, fols. 35r [twice], 43r, and 91r):
http://tinyurl.com/38mkqvz
http://tinyurl.com/2uvgvku
http://tinyurl.com/328sl8q
http://tinyurl.com/32erjn8

H.'s activities greatly increased Cluny's wealth and standing.  The latter found commensurate architectural expression in the abbey's mammoth new basilica, now known as Cluny III, begun under H.  For views, plans, and discussion of this structure, of which one transept and some other fragments survive, see (e.g.):
http://tinyurl.com/yp55fp
http://tinyurl.com/2o8nyz
http://www.art-roman.net/cluny/cluny.htm
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/cluny-abbey.htm
http://tinyurl.com/33rt3b
Some reconstructions:
http://tinyurl.com/3t3thv
http://tinyurl.com/39da45
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/01180/01180c.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/2xuh3o


5)  Catherine of Siena (d. 1380).  The mystic and visionary C. was born in 1347, the umpteenth daughter of a Sienese wool-dyer and his wife.  A professed virgin since childhood, she became a Dominican tertiary at the age of eighteen, living very ascetically and engaging in acts of charity to the sick and the poor.  In 1370 she received a series of visions that impelled her to enter public life.  C. then carried on a lengthy correspondence with pope Gregory XI, touching on many matters and urging church reform.  In 1375 C. received the Holy Stigmata.  In 1376 she was in Avignon and from 1378 until her death she lived at Rome.

C. was buried her order's Roman church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.  She has a very impressive Vita (BHL 1702) by her confessor, Bl. Raymond of Capua, who as prior of the Dominican convent erected her first funerary monument in 1380.  The monument was modified in 1430 and in 1466 C. was translated to her present resting place before the high altar.  Some views of C.'s tomb, with its sculpture of her from 1430 reposing on a sarcophagus added in 1461, in Santa Maria sopra Minerva:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/rayflynn/2034595233/
http://tinyurl.com/26azt4r
http://tinyurl.com/2c5jcpl
http://tinyurl.com/2c5jcpl
A fragment from a set of reliefs ascribed to Donatello and executed for C.'s monument in the early 1430s shows the BVM presenting a crown to a figure no longer present but attested from a description of the monument in 1592 as having been a kneeling C. is shown and discussed here:
http://www.canino.info/inserti/toscana/donatello/index.htm 

Views of Siena's basilica di San Domenico (a. k.a. La Basilica Cateriniana), built from 1226 to 1456:
http://tinyurl.com/564ldv
http://tinyurl.com/4yllje
http://tinyurl.com/cdxde7
http://tinyurl.com/5p6qhy

Since 1384 Siena's San Domenico has C.'s head:
http://tinyurl.com/djnmom
http://www.vittoe.com/0205a/p5294692.jpg
and a finger:
http://tinyurl.com/6xlryp
and a painting of C. in fresco from ca. 1390 by Andrea Vanni (d. ca. 1414), one of her disciples:
http://tinyurl.com/5ws8mh
Most Web-based reproductions of that painting look rather similar to the one just linked to.  This detail, from Fratelli Alinari, would seem to indicate that there's been a cleaning:
http://tinyurl.com/586udz

As that painting might indicate, C. was the subject of an immediately posthumous cult.  She was canonized in 1461 by her fellow Sienese, Pius II.

Expandable views of three panel paintings of C. (ca. 1460-1465) by the Sienese artist Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York:
http://www.insecula.com/oeuvre/O0029855.html
http://www.insecula.com/oeuvre/O0029856.html
http://www.insecula.com/oeuvre/O0029857.html
A panel painting of C., now in Harvard's Fogg Art Museum, by the same artist:
http://www.wga.hu/art/g/giovanni/paolo/catherin.jpg
A view of a later fifteenth-century fresco image of C. in the now deconsecrated church of San Pietro at Carpignano Sesia (NO) in Piedmont:
http://tinyurl.com/5792wp
A statue of C. (1494) by Neroccio di Bartolommeo de' Landi, now in the oratorio di Santa Caterina at Siena:
http://tinyurl.com/dfumfs
A panel painting, from the very end of the fifteenth century and now in the National Galleries of Scotland, of an enthroned C. in a very Dominican context:
http://tinyurl.com/484fmr

C. was named a Doctor of the Church in 1970.  Along with Francis of Assisi, she is a primary patron of Italy.  In 1999 she was proclaimed a patron saint of Europe.

Best,
John Dillon
(last year's post revised and with the addition of Tychicus)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JISCMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


WWW.JISCMAIL.AC.UK

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager