JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  January 2010

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION January 2010

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 15. January

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 15 Jan 2010 14:49:27 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (111 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (15. January) is the feast day of:

1)  Secundina (d. 250, supposedly).  S. is a local saint of Anagni (FR) in southern Lazio, a cathedral town whose principal patron is St. Magnus "of Trani" (19. August).  In the latter's legendary Vitae (BHL 5167, etc.), whose earliest dated witness is of the twelfth century, and in her own legendary Passio (BHL 7553), whose earliest dated witness is probably of the thirteenth century, she is said to have been a noble Roman virgin whom M. converted to Christianity and who was proselytizing in Anagni prior to her public martyrdom there during the Decian persecution.  S.'s putative remains repose along with those of Sts. Aurelia and Neomisia (25. September) in an altar named for her in the crypt of St. Magnus in Anagni's cathedral of Maria Santissima Assunta.  In the views shown here it's the one on the left:
http://digilander.libero.it/tissyna/panocripta.JPG
http://tinyurl.com/ybr4r88
A twelfth-century fresco in the same crypt depicts both S.'s proselytizing and her suffering:
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3109/2309949286_73b4483ec8_b.jpg
And here she is at right in a late fourteenth-century fresco on the cathedral's main level:
http://tinyurl.com/ydqdhfy


2)  Ephysius (d. ca. 303, supposedly).  E. (also Ephysus, Ephisius, E(u)visius, and Efisius) is a Sardinian martyr of uncertain date.  His cult first comes to light in the late eleventh and very early twelfth centuries, when Latin monks from the continental mainland were taking over what previously had been the island's very provincial Byzantine church.  The evidence takes two forms: the oldest version of a highly legendary Latin-language Passio (BHL 2567, etc.) and a church at today's Nora (CA) built over a hypogeum containing a loculus traditionally said to have been E.'s.

The earliest surviving version of E.'s Passio occurs in a twelfth-century codex (BAV, Vat. lat. 6453) and was published in _Analecta Bollandiana_ 3 (1884), 362-77.  It and its offshoots are an adaptation of the Greek second Bios of St. Procopius, possibly through a lost Latin translation composed on the Italian peninsula or at least by someone with an interest in southern Italy.  According to this account E. is a soldier from Jerusalem whom Diocletian places at the head of his army and sends to Italy to harass the Christians.  There a voice from heaven shows him a cross, promises him through its power victory over all his enemies, and proclaims that he will become a martyr.

The now Christian E. proceeds to Gaeta, has a goldsmith make him a cross adorned with gold and silver, and then, displaying this as a visible sign and standard (_signum_), defeats in battle a host of Saracens anachronistically present in Diocletian's Italy.  In what is clearly a doublet of this scene for a Sardinian audience, E. next proceeds to Arborea (one of the Sardinian judicates) and with the aid of a heaven-sent messenger dressed as an imperial eunuch and bearing a special weapon (a two-pointed _romphea_ with a cross above) wins a victory over local barbarians who are probably to be identified with the Sardinian _barbaricini_ known to us and to E.'s hagiographer from a mention in the correspondence of pope St. Gregory the Great.  These feats accomplished, E. goes on to Cagliari, where he is arrested as a Christian, incarcerated, tried, and finally taken to Nora and there decapitated.  Thus far E.'s Passio.  

E.'s church at Nora is first attested from 1089, when it appears in a list of properties given by the judge of Cagliari to the Victorines of Marseille (a later report says that the Victorines found it empty; this is the basis for the widely accepted view that in the year 1088 E.'s relics were translated to Pisa, whose special devotion to E. is attested as early as 1126).  The church, erected in what had been a late antique cemetery, is an originally eleventh-century structure that has since been greatly modified.  In the later Middle Ages it was one of Sardinia's major pilgrimage destinations.  An exterior view of it is here (could those be pilgrims in the foreground?):
http://www.paladix.cz/gallery.php?ido=16916
An illustrated, Italian-language page on this monument:
http://tinyurl.com/y77ftp
There is a good discussion of it, with photographs and plans, in Pier Giorgio Spanu, _Martyria Sardiniae. I santuari dei martiri sardi_ (Oristano: S'Alvure, 2000), 61-81.

Other medieval or possibly medieval dedications to E. are reported from the judicate of Cagliari: a church at Quartucciu (CA) given to the Victorines of Marseille in 1119 (still in their possession in 1218) and the church of undated origin in Cagliari's Stampace quarter built over a subterranean chamber probably used in Roman times as a jail and now exhibited as E.'s prison.  An Italian-language account of the latter is here:
http://tinyurl.com/9dk3p2
Some views (including one of the column to which E. is supposed to have been bound):
http://www.fotodisardegna.it/cagliari/carcere/carcere.htm

In Pisa, E.'s major monuments are the remains of the Camposanto frescoes depicting scenes from his Passio painted by Spinello Aretino in 1391-92.  The best known of these is an interpretation of the celestial messenger's showing E. the _romphea_ (in captions on several reproduction sites ineptly called a flag):
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/spinello/smichael.jpg
The small reproduction here shows more of the composition, with the scene with the angel on the left and a battle on the right:
http://www2.alfea.it/RESOURCES/DOC/cca-001/CCA001_18.jpg
Another panel from these frescoes was in the news in 2003, as restorers announced the successful use of a bacterium to remove glue that had covered it since it was removed from the wall of the Camposanto in the 1950s:
http://tinyurl.com/fh1n
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s886276.htm

E.'s cult received a major boost in the early seventeenth century during Cagliari's great promotion of its _corpi santi_.  E. is also credited with having brought an end to a plague that ravaged Cagliari and other places from 1652 to 1656; since then he has been the archdiocese of Cagliari's patron saint and was for much of that time also the patron of the city of Cagliari (now St. Saturninus/Saturnus of Cagliari).  In 1793 he was credited with having defeated an attempted French invasion of the island.  In 1886 a portion of his relics at Pisa was returned to the archdiocese and now resides in his aforementioned church in Cagliari.  E. was dropped from the RM in its revision of 2001 but continues to be celebrated liturgically in Sardinia.


3)  John the Calybite (d. mid-5th cent.).  According to his Bioi (BHG 868-869h; versions in Georgian and Syriac, BHO 498, 499), J. was born to a wealthy senatorial family in Constantinople.  At the age of twelve he was inspired by an Acoemete monk to join that recently founded community.  The Acoemetes were particularly devoted to the Gospels and required each monk to have his own copy.  Being aware of this, J. asked his parents to obtain a copy for him; not being aware of his intent, they provided J. with a very costly manuscript whose binding was ornamented with gold and with precious stones.  After J. had been with the Acoemetes for six years he received permission to return to Constantinople, where, dressed in rags, he took up life as a beggar near his parents' palace.

The parents did not recognize J. as their son but his father, who was more tolerant of the beggar than was J.'s mother, allowed a servitor to erect a hut for him next to the palace door (whence his Greek appellation Kalybites, i.e. hut-dweller).  J. lived there for another three years, revealing himself (and confirming this by showing his mother the golden Gospels) on when he was a death's door.  The parents experienced a religious conversion, turned their palace into a hospice, and erected a church in J.'s memory where the hut had been.

The church was in existence in the year 468.  Anthony of Novgorod saw J.'s tomb there in the early thirteenth century.  A head of J. venerated at Besançon until its disappearance in 1794 is sometimes said to have arrived there shortly after Constantinople fell to the Latins in 1204 (does anyone know when its presence at Besançon is actually first recorded?).  The relics said to be J.'s in the early modern church dedicated to him on Rome's Tiber Island were discovered there only during its construction.  Whereas that church's predecessor (first attested from 1016) was dedicated to a St. John, proof that the present J. was its titular is lacking.

In about 870 Anastasius Bibliothecarius translated J.'s pre-metaphrastic Bios (BHG 868) into Latin (BHL 4358); this text was later revised (BHL 4358b; also of Roman origin).  After the mid-eleventh century someone probably belonging to or connected with the Amalfitan community in Constantinople translated J.'s metaphrastic Bios (BHG 869) into Latin; this version was published by Paolo Chiesa in 1995 but has yet to be entered in the Bollandists' online database _Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina Manuscripta_.  Although J. is said not to appear in western medieval calendars, he was surely venerated at today's Caloveto (CS) in Calabria's Sila Greca: the town takes its name from that of a local rupestrian monastery dedicated to him that is thought to have been founded in the eighth century (the eleventh-century St. Bartholomew of Grottaferrata entered religion there).  Herewith a couple of views:
http://www.silagreca.it/comuni/images/caloveto04.jpg
http://www.silagreca.de/caloveto.html

J. at left (his fellow holy fool St. Alexius at right), as depicted in the early thirteenth-century (1230s) frescoes of the Mileševa monastery near Prijepolje (Zlatibor dist.) in southern Serbia:
http://tinyurl.com/yecf8jy
On J. as an holy fool, see Sergey A. Ivanov, _Holy Fools in Byzantium and Beyond_ (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 86-90.

J. at right (St. Euplus at left), as depicted in the thirteenth- or early fourteenth-century frescoes of the church of the Evangelisteria in Geraki (Laconia prefecture) on the Peloponnese:
http://tinyurl.com/yhps7ae

J. as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century (betw. 1335 and 1350) nave frescoes in the church of the Holy Ascension at the Visoki Dečani monastery near Peć in, depending on one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
http://tinyurl.com/ybvqt5f

J. at left (St. Alexius at right), as depicted in the early sixteenth-century frescoes (1502) by Dionisy and sons in the Virgin Nativity cathedral of the St. Ferapont Belozero (Ferapontov Belozersky) monastery at Ferapontovo in Russia's Vologda oblast:
http://www.dionisy.com/eng/museum/123/136/index.shtml


4)  Maurus, abbot in France (?).  Prior to its revision of 2001 the RM commemorated on this day St. Maurus the well known disciple of St. Benedict (now commemorated along with his fellow disciple St. Placidus on 5. October), giving him an elogium that accepted Odo of Glanfeuil's identification, in his_Vita sancti Mauri_ (BHL 5772; ninth-century but presenting itself as a re-wording of a late antique predecessor by an otherwise unattested disciple of St. Benedict named Faustus), of that M. with the founding abbot of Glanfeuil at today's Saint-Maur-de-Glanfeuil (Maine-et-Loire) in the Loire Valley.  The abbey's own age is unknown.  Its veneration of M. in this abbatial role may not have antedated the ninth century, when it begins to be attested in charters.  According to Odo M.'s relics had been the subject of a relatively recent Inventio there.  Excepts from ninth-century charters referring to M.'s abbey at Glanfeuil are given here:
http://tinyurl.com/yh7f8y5

In Odo's construction M. was both a thaumaturge and a paragon of Carolingian monastic ideals.  His Miracula of M. (BHL 5775) relates as well the community's flight under pressure of Norse raiders, with M.'s putative relics, to the environs of Paris, where in 868 the brothers re-established themselves at Saint-Pierre-des-Fossés (later Saint-Maur-des-Fossés) and continued to promote M.'s cult from there.  Cluniacs and others used M.'s Vita to advantage in advancing their own views of ideal conformity to the Benedictine Rule. Numerous miracles, especially cures of gout and of epilepsy, were reported at his shrine.  In the eighteenth century the wonder-working relics were translated to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, where they are said to have been profaned and scattered during the Revolution.     

For more on the Vita and on M.'s cult, see John B. Wickstrom, tr., _The Life and Miracles of Saint Maurus: Disciple of Benedict, Apostle to France_ (Collegeville, MN: Cistercian Publications/Liturgical Press, 2008; Cistercian Studies Series, vol. 223).

M.'s monastery at Glanfeuil was later reoccupied as a priory of Saint-Pierre-des-Fossés (it regained its abbatial status in 1096).  Eleventh(?)- to thirteenth-century ruins survive at the site, along with a modern structure built over the foundations of the abbey church.  Herewith two very different illustrated, French-language pages on the site (the second retailing great gobs of hokum):
http://tinyurl.com/yz8rw5r
http://membres.multimania.fr/saintmaur/essai_abbaye.html
Nineteenth-century archeological excavation on the site revealed significant remains of a structure originally interpreted as a nymphaeum from a Roman villa (they are still often so described in touristic and other "popular" writing) :
http://membres.multimania.fr/saintmaur/nymphee.html
The same remains are now more soberly, but no less interestingly, interpreted as being from a twelfth-century monastic lavatory.  See the last item here:
http://pagesperso-orange.fr/erwan.levourch/stmaur1.htm#5

A CD-ROM facsimile of an illuminated twelfth-century manuscript of M.'s Vita and Miracula (Troyes, Médiathèque de l'Agglomération troyenne, ms. 2273) is on offer here:
http://tinyurl.com/yc8xo36
http://tinyurl.com/ydefqf2

M. the mitred abbot as depicted in a later fifteenth-century (1463) copy of Vincent de Beauvais' _Speculum historiale_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 51, fol. 432v):
http://tinyurl.com/ycj9tgw

Abbot M. healing a boy both lame and mute as depicted in a later fifteenth-century (ca. 1470) copy of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay as continued by Jean Golein (Mâcon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 3, fol. 137v):
http://tinyurl.com/2pjdfp


5)  Arsenius of Armo (d. ca. 900).  Our information about this less well known saint of the Regno (also A. of Reggio di Calabria) comes from the Bios of St. Elias the Speleote (BHG 581; BHL 3798b [a Latin translation from ca. 1082 with matter absent from the Greek-language text]).  An ordained priest living as an hermit monk near his native Reggio di Calabria, he received the young Elias as a disciple, tonsured him and gave him his habit, taught him ascetic practices and monastic discipline, and for the remainder of his own life treated him as a son.  The pair preached and engaged in works of charity at a sequence of local churches.  At the first of these A. was treated unjustly by a cathedral priest.  When he sought redress from the military governor the latter struck him with such force that he bled.  A.'s prayer for divine retribution was answered by the official's swift demise.  At Armo, now a _frazione_ of Reggio, he received the gift of discernment of spirits.

A. accompanied Elias on his lengthy travels in Greece.  Returning to Armo, he died there and was buried at its church of St. Eustratius.  The local populace honored him as a saint.  When some years Muslim invaders came to Armo they opened his tomb in the hope of treasure.  Not finding any, they attempted to burn A.'s body but failed when it miraculously refused to catch fire.  Chastened by this wonder, they departed.  Elias, who in the interim had founded his community at Melicuccà, returned to Armo and re-interred his mentor's remains.  Thus far Elias' later tenth-century Bios.  A. was one of the Italo-Greek saints to enter the RM in 2004.  He is celebrated liturgically today in Armo's chiesa dalla SS. Maria Assunta.        

Best,
John Dillon
(last year's post revised and with the additions of Secundina and Arsenius of Armo)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

February 2020
January 2020
December 2019
November 2019
October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager