medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
Today (30. November) is the feast day of:
1) Andrew the Protoclete, apostle (d. 1st cent.). Like his brother Simon Peter today's well known saint of the Regno was a disciple of St. John the Forerunner before becoming an adherent of Jesus of Nazareth. According to Eusebius, he preached in Scythia, by which latter quite possibly is meant the Roman province of this name erected by Diocletian in today's southeastern Romania and northeastern Bulgaria (Ukrainians and Russians think otherwise, of course). Theodoret has A. preaching in Greece. From at least the fourth century onward it has been believed that he suffered martyrdom at Patras.
In 357 relics venerated as A.'s were brought from Patras to Constantinople's church of the Holy Apostles. Scots believe that in the eighth century their St. Regulus (Rule) brought A.'s relics from Constantinople to today's St Andrews in Fife. Two illustrated pages on the St Rule Tower and the ruins of St Andrews cathedral at St Andrews are here:
But all in Campania know that in 1208 A.'s remains were brought from Constantinople to Amalfi, where they are now housed in the cathedral dedicated to him. Matthew of Amalfi's account of this translation, as published by the Comte de Riant in its later thirteenth-century revised version (in vol. 1 of succeeding versions of Riant's _Exuviae sacrae Constantinopolitanae_ ([1876; 1877-78]), repays reading in several respects.
Of course, neither Matthew nor his reviser had any idea that in the 1460s the Despot of Morea, Thomas Palaeologus, would bring with him into exile in Italy a head said to be that of St. Andrew, that Pius II would acquire it for the Roman church and use it as a propaganda device for his projected crusade against the Turks, that in this context Cardinal Bessarion would give a welcoming speech to A. in his partial presence in 1462 (a heady moment, no doubt), and that in 1964 Paul VI would "return" this relic plus a finger bone from A.'s relics in Amalfi to the Greek Orthodox church in Patras. Here's a view of A.'s skull reliquary in Patras:
A.'s right foot is said to be in the monastery of Agios Andreas on Kefalonia. Other relics believed to be his are in the skete of St. Andrew on Mt. Athos, a Russian foundation honoring one of that country's patron saints. Here's a view of what is said A.'s skull belonging to that monastery:
Andrew the Polycephalous?
From at least 1250 until 1979, when it was transferred to A.'s church at Patras, a cross believed to be that of A. was preserved in the church of St. Victor at Marseille.
A few portraits:
a) A.'s martyrdom in an illuminated initial in the mid-ninth-century Drogo Sacramentary (Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 9428, fol. 98v):
b) An early eleventh-century (ca. 1020) manuscript illumination in a sacramentary now at Rouen (Rouen, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 274, fol. 164v):
c) A.'s martyrdom in a later eleventh-century (before 1096) manuscript illumination in an Office lectionary for the cathedral of Reims (Reims, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 295, fol. 215r):
d) A twelfth-century (1140s) portrait in stone, now in the Musée Rolin, Autun:
e) A.'s martyrdom in an earlier thirteenth-century (ca. 1230-1240) manuscript illumination in a psalter from Hildesheim, now in the BnF in Paris (ms. Nouvelle acquisition latine 3102, fol. 6v):
f) A thirteenth-century (ca. 1234-1266) manuscript illumination on a map of the Mediterranean (Lyon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 175, sheet 9):
g) A thirteenth-century (ca. 1266) manuscript illumination of the Calling of Peter and Andrew, in a Gospels for the use of Cambrai (Cambrai, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 189, fol. 170r), A. at left:
h) An earlier fourteenth-century (ca. 1326) panel painting by Simone Martini, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:
i) A.'s martyrdom as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century (1335-1350) frescoes in the narthex of the church of the Holy Ascension at the Visoki Dečani monastery near Peć in, depending on one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
j) A. at right in a late fourteenth-century (1395) panel painting by Taddeo di Bartolo, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest:
k) An early fifteenth-century (1408) panel painting by Andrei Rublev, now in the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow:
l) A late fifteenth-century (ca. 1480-1485) panel painting by Antoniazzo Romano, now in the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome (A. at far left, Lawrence at far right):
m) A.'s martyrdom in a late fifteenth-century (ca. 1490) panel painting by Carlo Braccesco, now in the Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro, Venice:
n) A. carrying his cross in an earlier sixteenth-century (1527) pen-and-ink drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger, now in The British Museum, London:
a) Amalfi's cattedrale di Sant'Andrea, begun in the tenth century and much reworked since then.
Atrium (originally thirteenth-century; rebuilt after the collapse of 1861):
Entrance, with the eleventh-century "bronze" doors whose plates were cast in Constantinople:
Italian-language account giving the metallic composition of those plates:
Belltower, begun in the twelfth century and finished in 1276:
The interior is largely early modern. A. is in the crypt (constructed in 1253 and redone in 1719), in the area shown here:
specifically, under this altar:
Some medieval frescoes survive in the church. The one shown here portrays the first Grand Master of the Hospitallers of St. John, Bl. Gerardo Sasso of Scala, a local boy who made good:
Or perhaps not so local. There's also a view that he came from Martigues (Bouches-du-Rhône) in Provence. Other frescoes and decor in other forms are shown on the Italia nell'Arte Medievale page on this church:
b) Wells Cathedral (originally twelfth- to fifteenth-century) is also dedicated to A. Some views, starting with the West Front:
c) Bordeaux' originally twelfth- to sixteenth-century cathédrale Saint-André:
d) Moving away from cathedral churches, a timeline for, and a page of views of, the largely twelfth- and early thirteenth-century former abbey church and cloister of Saint-André-le-Bas in Vienne (retaining ninth-century substructures and an eleventh-century apse; west part of the nave rebuilt in 1928):
e) An illustrated, Italian-language page on the originally twelfth-century chiesa di Sant'Andrea in Pistoia, with its famous pulpit (1297-1301) by Giovanni Pisano:
The Italia nell'Arte Medievale page on this church:
More views of the pulpit:
f) An illustrated, German-language page on the originally thirteenth-century St. Andreaskirche in Braunschweig (badly damaged in 1944 and since restored):
A more detailed German-language history of the church:
Another view of the towers:
g) The originally earlier fourteenth-century (ca. 1340) Church of St Andrew, Utterby (Lincs):
h) Some views of the originally late fourteenth-century (1389) church of the manastir Sv. Andrea at Matka in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, restored in 1971/72 and noted for its frescoes:
Two pages of views (mostly of the frescoes) begin here:
The church was built on the plan of a Greek cross; the large addition one sees is from the sixteenth century.
i) Two illustrated, English-language pages on the originally late fifteenth-/early sixteenth-century church pf St Andrew in Norwich:
2) Mirocles (d. early 4th cent.). As bishop of Milan M. participated in the synods of Rome in 313 and Arles in 314 that dealt with the Donatist question. With the exceptions of the Arian Auxentius (355-74) and of a line of bishops in exile in the later sixth and earlier seventh centuries, all the early bishops of Milan from its early third-century protobishop Anatolus through Natalis (d. 751) are considered saints. Among these, M. had in late antique and early medieval tradition a certain prominence, probably because he was the incumbent when the Edicts of Milan were promulgated. St. Ambrose names him among his exemplary Catholic predecessors (_Epistulae_, 21. 18) and St. Ennodius (d. 521) thinks it worth mentioning that St. Epiphanius of Pavia (d. 496) was through his mother's family related to M. Today is M.'s _dies natalis_.
3) Tudwal (d. mid-6th cent.). One of the seven founding saints of Brittany, T. (also Tugdual) is first recorded in a Breton liturgy of the tenth century. His originally eleventh- or twelfth-century Vita (different versions: BHL 8350, 8351, 8353) makes him a Welsh monk who arrives in Brittany at what would be the outset of the twelfth century and there, after spending some time as a hermit, founds a monastery at today's Tréguier (Côtes-d'Armor). Later T. goes on pilgrimage to Rome, is elected pope (taking the name of Leo), and returns to Tréguier, where he dies and is buried. Underlying this story is a misapprehension about the significance of T.'s appellation Pabu (Breton for "father"), applied to Breton monastic founders and to the monasteries named for them.
The diocese of Tréguier was erected in 848. Its first cathedral is thought to have been destroyed by Northmen or, when the place was abandoned under the pressure of their attacks, to have succumbed to the elements. When a new cathedral was built in the later tenth century it was dedicated to T., as was also its originally fourteenth- and fifteenth-century successor, now a cathedral of the diocese of Saint-Brieuc and Tréguier. Some views of that structure:
(last year's post lightly revised and with added visuals)
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