JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  October 2009

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION October 2009

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 30. October

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 30 Oct 2009 17:06:45 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (103 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (30. October) is the feast day of:

1)  Marcian of Syracuse (d. 1st cent., supposedly).  We have no information about this less well known saint of the Regno and legendary protobishop of Syracuse prior to the late seventh and early eighth centuries, when he is the subject of a hymn by Gregory of Syracuse and of an anonymous Encomium (BHG 1030) that makes him an Antiochene disciple of Peter sent to Sicily to preach the Gospel and martyred at Syracuse after having made many conversions there.  In the sixth century, a basilica at Syracuse thought to have been dedicated to M. was built in (crypt, with a martyr's tomb) and over (remainder of the basilica) part of a Christian cemetery whose dated inscription is of the early fifth century.  In the eighth or very early ninth century, M. was depicted in a fresco in that city's catacombs of St. Lucy.

In 842, during the ongoing Muslim conquest of Sicily, relics said to be M.'s were translated to the Campanian port city of Gaeta, where M. subsequently became one of that city's patron saints.  At about the same time his feast was recorded for today on the Marble Calendar of Naples; this festal date is also recorded for him in a Capuan codex of 991 and in the eleventh- through thirteenth-century menaia of the Greek abbey at Grottaferrata.  In around 1092, after the Latin reconquest of Syracuse, the aforementioned basilica there was rebuilt as a church of St. John
the Apostle and its crypt, now called that of St. Marcian, was amplified and re-worked.  Illustrated, Italian-language accounts of the crypt are here:
http://www.siracusacity.com/Monumenti/CriptaS_Marziano.htm
and especially here:
http://tinyurl.com/853yx


2)  Saturninus of Cagliari (d. ca. 304, supposedly).  S. (medievally and later, also Saturnus; in Sardinian, Sadurru and Saturru) is first attested in the mid-sixth-century _Vita Fulgentii_ often ascribed to Ferrandus the disciple and companion of St. Fulgentius of Ruspe.  There we are told that when in about 517 Fulgentius, Ferrandus, and other Catholic churchmen of the Arian-ruled Vandal kingdom based on Carthage were in internal exile on Sardinia they built a monastery outside of Cagliari near the church of the holy martyr Saturninus (whose date and place of martyrdom are unspecified).

At Cagliari a long-standing tradition makes S. a local martyr of the Great Persecution.  A donation by Cagliari's judge Torchitorius I (Orzoccus) to the archbishop of Cagliari in the period 1070-1080 speaks of _S. Saturnu nostru_.  S. has a dossier whose chief text is the _Passio sancti Saturnini_ (BHL 7491) edited in 2002 by Antonio Piras from four manuscripts and one printed text, none earlier than the latter half of the twelfth century.  In Piras' view, this Passio dates to the period between the end of the sixth century and the end of the eighth and is the source of similar material in other texts, including the Passio of Sergius of Cappadocia (BHL 7598) sometimes thought instead to have been used for the creation of S.'s Passio.  Other texts in S.'s dossier include the _Legenda sancti Saturni_ (BHL 7490) and the surviving portion of the poem _Christe, patris verbum_ (BHL 7491b), both seemingly of the twelfth or thirteenth century.

During the early Middle Ages southern Sardinia was an outpost of the "Byzantine commonwealth".  Latinization of its then Greek-rite church began in earnest in the eleventh century.  A chief mover in this was the Victorine congregation of Marseille, which took over important cult sites and other properties in the judicate of Cagliari including, in 1089, the church now called the basilica di San Saturno/Saturnino and after early expansion by the Victorines and after several more recent restorations still famous for its fifth-century core and its sixth-century cupola above the central _martyrium_.  Two illustrated, Italian-language pages on this church are here:
http://tinyurl.com/ybebaot
http://tinyurl.com/yfzsm97
Other exterior views:
http://tinyurl.com/yleapbz
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3130/2784416020_fcd04aba58_o.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/yjs7wnm
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/13305462.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/yg3zfd2
http://tinyurl.com/yhedoo7
http://tinyurl.com/ylzed7q
Interior views:
http://tinyurl.com/yzfkbkf
http://tinyurl.com/yfolfk4
Two further interior views are at the foot of this page:
http://tinyurl.com/5mrsf6
Pier Giorgio Spanu, _Martyria Sardiniae. I santuari dei martiri sardi_ (Oristano: S'Alvure, 2000), discusses both cult and church at pp. 51-60 (with plans and photographs).

Medievally, S. was venerated principally in the judicates of Cagliari and Arborea.  Calaritan charters from the early twelfth century onward refer to a church of Sanctu Sadurru de Giida in the area around Suelli called Trecenta (Trexenta).  The much rebuilt chiesa di San Saturnino in Isili (NU), once part of the judicate of Arborea, is first documented from the fourteenth century.  First documented from the sixteenth century is the originally earlier twelfth-century chiesa di San Saturno/Saturnino at Ussana (CA); its initial construction is assigned conjecturally to the Victorines of Cagliari.  Herewith an Italian-language account and some views of that church (the oldest portions, as often, are in the rear):
http://tinyurl.com/ybz6wbl
http://www.comune.ussana.ca.it/?pagina=19&galleria=1
http://tinyurl.com/yj6jhas
http://tinyurl.com/yk6onag
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/24452777.jpg

Further north, in the former judicate of Logudoro, at today's Benetutti (SS) is the originally twelfth- or thirteenth-century chiesa di San Saturnino.  A church of this dedication there was donated to the Camaldolese in 1163; the present church is thought to be their rebuilding of it:
http://tinyurl.com/yzzne9h
http://tinyurl.com/yh4pneg
http://tinyurl.com/yhkfkz9

S. was dropped from the MR in its revision of 2001.  He is Cagliari's patron saint (and that of Isili as well).


3)  Maximus of Cuma (d. ca. 304, supposedly).  This less well known saint of the Regno is entered for today in the (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology (in the earliest ms., as a martyr of today's Conza in Campania) and in the earlier ninth-century Marble Calendar of Naples.  Some later witnesses of the (ps.-)HM and some late medieval hagiographic texts record an M. of _Apamia_ (either a corruption of _Campania_ or a reference to the Roman name of today's Pescina [AQ] in Abruzzo; if the latter, then the saint so identified will probably be the Abruzzese M. of Aveia).  As a result, our M. was until fairly recently also known as M. of Apamea and was said on the basis of such texts to have suffered at Apamea in Phrygia.

M. has a highly legendary Passio in two rather different versions (BHL 5845, whose earliest witness is of the tenth century, and BHL 5846 and 5846b, whose earliest witness is of the eleventh century); the latter has an expansion (BHL 5847; earliest witness is also of the eleventh century) that François Dolbeau has said has the manner and style of the later ninth-/early tenth-century Neapolitan hagiographer John the Deacon.  He is said legendarily to have been martyred at the coastal Campanian town of Cumae (now Cuma), to have appeared some fifteen years after his death to the Juliana venerated at Cuma (16. February; formerly J. of Nicomedia), and to have requested removal from his original burial place to a martyrial basilica that after this translation -- said to have occurred on 30. October -- became the town's cathedral.

Archaeology puts the transformation of the chief temple on the acropolis of Cumae to a Christian church only in the fifth or sixth century.  That church, dedicated to M., was Cuma's early medieval cathedral.  Excavations there in 1933-1934 brought to light the mutilated funerary inscription of someone who in the early eighth century had fallen in battle against the Lombards and who commended himself to M.'s patronage.  In 1207 the archbishop of Naples conducted a translation to Naples from Cuma of the putative remains of Juliana and of M.; those of M. were interred under the main altar of Naples' then cathedral.

Perhaps directly from Cuma (some suggest Capua instead) M.'s cult reached the also formerly East Roman duchy of Gaeta by the later tenth century, whence St. Nilus of Rossano and his community brought it to their foundation at Grottaferrata in the Alban Hills outside of Rome (M., characterized as a deacon, is celebrated in an early eleventh-century calendar from that abbey).  M. is present in all but the first of the Capuan calendars published by Michele Monaco in his _Sanctuarium Capuanum_ of 1630; one version of his Passio occurs in the thirteenth-century _sanctorale_ of the chapter library of Bovino (FG) in Apulia.

Some views of the former temple of Jupiter / cathedral of St. Maximus at Cuma:
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/4491718.jpg
http://www.gliscritti.it/gallery2/v/cumabacoli/IMG_0272.JPG.html
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/9202340.jpg
http://www.camperclubmantova.com/Napoli/12%20CUMA.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/ya4rfrg
http://tinyurl.com/ye723x9
 

4)  Germanus of Capua (d. ca. 541).  This less well known saint of the Regno, an early bishop of Capua, has a vague and unreliable Vita (BHL 3465; late but earlier than 873-74) that tells us that he was born in that city of illustrious parents and that, upon his father's death and with his mother's consent, he sold off his entire inheritance and dedicated himself to the poor.  The _Liber
Pontificalis_ offers details of his role in the papal embassy to Constantinople of 519-20 which brought about the end of the Acacian schism.

St. Gregory the Great has two stories about G. in the _Dialogues_.  In one (4. 40), G.'s prayers secured the release from purgatorial punishment of the deceased Roman deacon Paschasius, now toiling as a bath attendant at a place identified medievally as Agnano in the Phlegraean Fields; in the other (2. 35), St. Benedict, having been granted a vision of the whole world all at once, saw the soul of G. ascending to heaven.

In 887 Louis II brought G.'s remains from Capua to Montecassino, where the new town at the foot of the mountain -- today's Cassino (FR) in southern  Lazio -- became known as San Germano, the name it would retain until 1863.  G.'s relics were later moved to a chapel in the abbey church, where they were destroyed in the Allied bombardment of 1944.

A reproduction of a thirteenth-century miniature from the Biblioteca Angelica copy (ms. 1474) of Peter of Eboli's _De balneis Terrae Laboris_ (vel sim.; title varies) showing Germanus and Paschasius at upper left is here:
http://www.nsula.edu/campaniafelix/sites/agnano/Images/manuscript02.jpg
For a discussion of this image and of the corresponding passage in Peter's poem, see this page by Jean D'Amato Thomas, the American doyenne of medieval and early modern Phlegraean Field studies:
http://www.nsula.edu/campaniafelix/sites/agnano/purgatory.htm
   

5)  Gerard of Potenza (d. 1122?).  This less well known saint of the Regno was an early twelfth-century bishop of Potenza, then an important comital center and now the capital city of Basilicata.  He has a brief, seemingly closely posthumous Laudatio (BHL 3429), written in the persona of his otherwise undocumented successor Manfred, who claims to have been a partial eyewitness to the actions and events recounted.  Whereas these are mostly reported in very general terms, we _are_ told that G. came from a noble family of Piacenza (in the Italian north), that he was elected bishop of Potenza late in life, that he served only eight years, and that his canonization _viva voce_ by Calixtus II (d. 13 or 14 Dec. 1124) was announced in Potenza by several bishops (one of whom was not yet in office at the start of the first Lateran council, 18 March 1123).

Local tradition has G. dying in 1119.  If he is correctly recorded as having signed a bull issued issued by Calixtus at Catanzaro in 1121, he was still alive in the latter year.  G.'s cult is attested from 1250, when his remains were moved to a place of honor in Potenza's cathedral.  Thanks to the first of the few miracles related in his Laudatio, G. is considered a patron of cripples and the paralytic.

Potenza's late twelfth-century cathedral (since dedicated to G.) was rebuilt in the eighteenth century and was restored following damage sustained in the earthquake of 1930 and the Allied bombing of 1943.  During the latest restoration, the foundation of the original apse and a hypogeum with a mosaic floor were brought to light.  The oculus in the facade is said to be a survivor from the medieval church.  A set of expandable views (not including the hypogeum) is here:
http://www.basilicata.cc/paesi_taddeo/t_663/p_monum/663_05.htm

Best,
John Dillon
(matter from older posts revised and with the addition of Maximus of Cuma)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager