JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  October 2009

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION October 2009

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 17. October

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 17 Oct 2009 10:28:26 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (106 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (17. October) is the feast day of:

1)  Catervus (late 1st or early 2d cent., supposedly).  The patron saint of Tolentino (MC) in the Marche, C. had a cult that was already in existence in 1054, when church dedicated to him is recorded as having existed there.  In 1206 a local monastery of the same name is attested.  By 1254 C. was being called a martyr.  Though Boniface VIII in an indulgence of 1299 referred to him as _confessor_, locally C. was still held to be a martyr in 1474, when he is first recorded as Tolentino's patron saint.

A perhaps thirteenth-century Vita (BHL 1656 b and c) makes C. the son of noble parents who heard Peter and Paul preach at Rome; according to this account, C. exercised the office of praetorian prefect and was married early to a highly placed Roman named Septimia Severina, with whom he lived in chaste wedlock.  He preached, performed miracles, and converted many in Rome, in the Holy Land, and finally at Tolentino in the March of Ancona, where he was martyred for his faith.  Septimia Severina saw angels carrying C.'s soul off to heaven; his mortal remains she placed in a sculpted marble tomb that the Vita describes in some detail.

That description, though in places inaccurate, is hardly fanciful.  For the sarcophagus exists (it has a place of honor in Tolentino's cathedral of San Catervo) and its inscriptions, misread and/or misinterpreted in the Middle Ages, together with its Christian iconography clearly formed the basis for C.'s cult.  This was the resting place of the late fourth-century former praetorian prefect Flavius Iulius Catervius, of his wife Septimia Severina, and of their son Bassus.  Septimia Severina had it made for her husband and, ultimately, for herself: the two are shown on it together in marital union:
http://tolentinonline.com/images/MONUMENTI/cate4_b.jpg
An Adoration of the Magi from the same sarcophagus:
http://tinyurl.com/8ybtd
A distance view of the sarcophagus in the cathedral's Cappella di San
Catervo:
http://tolentinonline.com/images/MONUMENTI/cate3_b.jpg
There is not the slightest evidence, by modern standards, that any of the occupants was particularly saintly.

According to an inscription on the sarcophagus, Catervius died on 17. October of some year; hence Catervus' feast day.  Septimia Severina was celebrated liturgically at Tolentino on 27. November (the Vita makes it clear that both husband and wife were saints).  An inspection of the sarcophagus in 1567 yielded remains of Bassus as well; he came to be celebrated on 25 October.  None of these worthies has ever graced the pages of the RM.  C. continues to be celebrated liturgically at Tolentino on this day.

The sarcophagus is shown and discussed in Josef Wilpert, _I sarcofagi cristiani antichi_ (Roma: Pontificio istituto di archeologia cristiana, 1929-36), vol. 1, pp. 7, 90-91 and plates 72, 73, and 94.  Its inscriptions are at _CIL_, IX. 5566; they are given again in the preface to Hippolyte Delehaye's posthumously published edition of the Vita: "Saints de Tolentino: La _Vita Sancti Catervi_," _Analecta Bollandiana_ 61 (1943), 5-48.  D.'s acidulous comments on this text make lively reading.

In addition to Tolentino's cathedral (rebuilt in the 1830s but still retaining bits of its thirteenth-century predecessor) another medieval monument now bearing C.'s name is Tolentino's Torrione San Catervo, a restored thirteenth-century macchiolated tower that was once part of the city's walls.  It served as the Austrian command post at the battle of Tolentino in 1815, where Murat's defeat insured Hapsburg dominance in the north of Italy and Bourbon restoration in the south.  Here's a view:
http://tinyurl.com/a3n7j


2)  Rufus and Zosimus (d. ca. 106).  According to St. Polycarp of Smyrna in his Epistle to the Philippians (chapter 9), R. and Z. were Christians caught up in the persecution of Trajan who accompanied St. Ignatius of Antioch (no. 3, below) on his enforced journey to Rome but who were martyred _en route_ at Philippi.  Polycarp's reference to them was incorporated by Eusebius in his account of Ignatius in the _Historia ecclesiastica_.  From there (presumably in Rufinus' Latin translation), R. and Z. entered the historical martyrologies with Florus of Lyon, who entered them under 17. December.  Ado, followed by Usuard, entered them under 18. December and gave them an elogium treating them as having been among the disciples who founded the primitive Church among Jews and Greeks.  Both that elogium and the 18. December date of commemoration survived in the RM until its revision of 2001. 


3)  Ignatius of Antioch (d. ca. 107).  The apparently Syrian I. (also I. the God-bearer) became bishop of Antioch on the Orontes in about the year 69.  Nothing specific is known about his episcopate.  Sts. John Chrysostom and Jerome report that he had been in contact with Apostles.  At some point during the persecution of the emperor Trajan I. was arrested and sent under guard to Rome.  While _en route_ in Asia Minor I. wrote his seven surviving epistles.  The majority were composed at Smyrna (where I. was welcomed by St. Polycarp); the remainder at Troas.  Polycarp is our earliest source for I.'s martyrdom; St. Irenaeus of Lyon and Origen tell us that he was thrown to the beasts.

By the late fourth century Antioch claimed to have his relics; in the earlier fifth century the emperor Theodosius translated these to the former temple of the Tyche of Antioch, which building then became a Christian church dedicated to I.  Relics said to be I.'s later came to Rome (where they were placed in the basilica di San Clemente) and to other places in the West, where I.'s major feast was celebrated on 1. February.  The revised RM of 2001 prefers today, his attested _dies natalis_ in late antique Antioch.

I.'s relics in Rome's San Clemente are said to lie with those of St. Clement in the confessio below the main altar.  In these views the confessio is barely visible though the grille at center:
http://www.marcantonioarchitects.com/San_Clem_Figure4.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/j849l

I.'s martyrdom in the late tenth- or very early eleventh-century so-called Menologion of Basil II (Città del Vaticano, BAV, Vat. gr. 1613):
http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Images/ib3009.jpg

I.'s martyrdom on the left pillar of the left portal of the south porch (ca. 1194-1230) of the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Chartres:
http://tinyurl.com/yfhuuwb

I. at left (St. Nicholas of Myra at right) in the fourteenth-century frescoes (1335-1350) of the Visoki Decani monastery near Peć in, depending on one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
http://tinyurl.com/yg49unl

Expandable views of a late fifteenth-century manuscript illumination of I. in a breviary for the Use of Langres are here (Chaumont, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 32, fol. 371v):
http://tinyurl.com/6frmfw

I.'s martyrdom, at left in a late-medieval(?) painting in the narthex of the originally thirteenth- or fourteenth-century church of the BVM, also known as a church of Christ's Ascension (Kisha e Ristozit) in Mborja (Korça/Korçë), Albania:
http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/photo580262.htm
While we're here, a couple of exterior views of the church:
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/25997202.jpg
http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/photo578537.htm


4)  Martyrs of Volitanum (d. late 3d or early 4th cent.).  We have no details of these African martyrs, on whose _dies natalis_ St. Augustine pronounced at least one sermon.  Their feast on this day is recorded in the early sixth-century Calendar of Carthage.


5)  John the Dwarf (d. prob. 398 or 409.  We know about the Egyptian desert father J. (also John the hermit and John Colobus ['kolobos' being Greek for 'dwarf']) chiefly from his sayings in the _Apopthegmata patrum_ and from a late seventh- or early eighth-century panegyric that survives in several languages and that underlies his notice in the Synaxary of Alexandria.  J. spent most of his life as a hermit at the famous monastery of Skete, where he was ordained priest and where St. Arsenius the Great was one of his disciples.  He was a contemporary of patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria (385-412).  Late in life J. left Skete because of barbarian pressure and settled down in a place near today's Suez, where he died on this day in an unrecorded year.  His death is said to have occurred on a Sunday (thus narrowing down the candidates for the likely year of his passing). 


6)  Dulcidius (d. 5th cent.).  According to an 'ancient' breviary of Agen, D. (in French, Dulcet) succeeded St. Febadius as that city's bishop.  He is said to have erected a basilica honoring Sts. Caprasius and Fides.  Relics believed to be his are preserved in a late twelfth- or thirteenth-century century châsse and in a fourteenth-century arm reliquary of copper, both in the originally twelfth-century parish church of Saint-Dulcet at Chamberet (Corrèze).  A distance view of the church (which was reworked in the nineteenth century):
http://tinyurl.com/62kg63
And here's a page of expandable views of its early thirteenth-century enameled reliquary châsse of D. (the last image shown is of D.'s sepulture):
http://www2.culture.gouv.fr/emolimo/dulcet.htm


7)  Florentius of Orange (d. betw. 524 and 527).  Traditionally the eighth bishop of Orange, F. took part in the council of Epaon in 517 and in that of Arles in 524.  A successor participated in the council of Arles in 527.  He is entered under today in the martyrologies of Ado, Usuard, and Notker and is presumably the F. entered for today in the martyrology of Wandelbert of Prüm.  In at least the central and later Middle Ages he was thought to have been born in Tours, whence he is sometimes called F. of Tours.  F. has a Vita in at least three versions (BHL 3040-3042) whose earliest witness is assigned to the twelfth century and which the Bollandists elected not to print in the _Acta Sanctorum_ on the grounds that all its substance after the place of F.'s birth is taken, often word-for-word, from the Vita of St. Veranus of nearby Cavaillon.

One of the legendary exploits shared by F. and V. -- and perhaps the best known, as it is included in the very brief lections on F. printed in the _Acta Sanctorum_ from a Propers of the diocese of Piacenza -- is the bringing back from the dead of a girl of today's Firenzuola d'Arda (PC) in Emilia as she was being carried to the grave.  Although V. now has a major street named for him in Firenzuola d'Arda, both medievally and today most of the credit there for this miracle has gone to F.  In the early Middle Ages a monastery in the town was dedicated to an F. (perhaps not originally today's saint); since the later thirteenth century this F., thought to be today's saint, has been the titular of its ex-collegiate church of San Fiorenzo.  The latter's library preserves two related texts by Bl. Iacopo da Varazze thought to have been written between 1281 and 1285 (_Tractatus miraculorum reliquiarum Sancti Florentii_; _Historia translationis reliquiarum eiusdem_).

Fiorenzuola d'Arda's collegiata di san Fiorenzo replaced an earlier church dedicated to St. Boniface and was built between 1273 and 1315 and was rebuilt in the later fifteenth century.  An illustrated, Italian-language page on it is here:
http://tinyurl.com/yz7tk3a
Other views (exterior only):
http://tinyurl.com/yj6xae6
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2065/2485840009_6db78d0cc5.jpg
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/4106722.jpg
http://tinyurl.com/yls9zvc
 
Back at Orange, F. is the titular of the originally fifteenth-century, formerly Franciscan église Saint-Florent.  Herewith some exterior views (a few showing the adjacent Roman theatre):
http://tinyurl.com/ygg3pde
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/16329136.jpg
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/6251160.jpg
http://www.flickr.com/photos/fgenoher/3743055653/sizes/l/
http://tinyurl.com/yzgwc63
http://tinyurl.com/yga8tsc
The church was badly burned in the French wars of religion.  Secularized at the Revolution, it was returned to church service in the nineteenth century.  Herewith two interior views (nave and sanctuary; one of four chapels):
http://tinyurl.com/yfbrngb
http://tinyurl.com/yh2pysu

Best,
John Dillon
(last year's post lightly revised and with the addition of Florentius of Orange)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager