JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  September 2009

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION September 2009

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 4. September

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 4 Sep 2009 00:23:40 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (90 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (4. September) is the feast day of:

1)  Marcellus of Chalon (d. ca. 178, supposedly).  M. is a martyr venerated since late antiquity at what is now Saint-Marcel-lès-Chalon (Saône-et-Loire) in Bourgogne.  Entered under today in the (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology, he has a legendary Passio (versions: BHL 5245, 5246) that is at least as old as the ninth century, when its oldest manuscript witness is thought to have been written and when it was known to Usuard.  This connects him with St. Valerian of Tournus and presents both as Christians who during the Aurelianic persecution escape the fate of their martyred mentor St. Pothinus and other members of the church at Lyon and evangelize along the Saône only to be slain for their faith at different places where martyrial chapels later were erected over their graves.  M.'s reported death was gruesome: he is said to have been bound and buried up to the waist, then left to die of thirst and starvation.

M. is the Marcel of today's Saint-Marcel-de-Carreiret (Gard; some 15 km. north of Uzès), the findspot of a pagan cippus re-used as a reliquary altar and bearing a perhaps late sixth-century inscription saying that the relics within were of M. and V.  According to the also sixth-century St. Gregory of Tours (_In gloria martyrum_, cap. 53) M.'s martyrial chapel was a cult site of some renown.  It was replaced by a basilica between 561 and 579.  In 584 the Burgundian king Guntram founded (or perhaps re-founded or enlarged) a monastery there.  That house became a Cluniac priory in the 980s, after which M.'s cult spread rapidly, eventually reaching both the Rheinland (Köln, Trier, Worms) and Spain (Toledo, Seville).  This priory was also the last home of Pierre Abélard, who died there in 1142.  Its church dedicated to M. was rebuilt in the later twelfth and early thirteenth centuries and was variously altered and restored in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Web-available views of the église Saint-Marcel at Saint-Marcel-lès-Chalon are seemingly scarce.  Here's a thumbnail view of the belltower:
http://www.pierre-abelard.com/sepultures_fichiers/eglise.jpg
The front and a bit of one flank:
http://tinyurl.com/mzrlx3
A room in the church decorated with what is said to be late thirteenth-century frescoing:
http://cem.revues.org/docannexe/image/455/img-1.jpg


2)  Marinus of San Marino (d. 4th cent., supposedly).  M. (also M. the Dalmatian) is the eponym and patron saint of the Republic of San Marino.  He has a Vita whose earliest witness is in a tenth-century manuscript from Bobbio now in Turin and whose most widely available text is the one printed in the _Acta Sanctorum_ based on twelfth- and fifteenth-century sources (BHL 4830, 4831).

According to this account, M. was an eloquent man from the Dalmatian island of Arbe who together with his compatriot St. Leo (i.e., Leo of San Leo) arrived at Rimini in the time of Diocletian and Maximian and who, though skilled in all the arts, at the command of these emperors spent three years toiling as a stonecutter on nearby Monte Titano (San Marino's highest mountain). That labor finished, he returned to Rimini and preached the faith until a woman from Dalmatia falsely accused him of being her absconding husband.  Whereupon he returned to Monte Titano and established an oratory in honor of St. Peter, where he then lived as a hermit.  M. and Leo (who in the interim had been living similarly on one of the other mountains) came to the attention of the bishop of Rimini, who ordained Leo as priest and M. as deacon.  The two then spent the rest of their lives separately combating idolatry in their adopted homeland.  Thus far the Vita.

Eugippius' Vita of of St. Severinus of Noricum mentions a monastery on Monte Titano that will have been in existence in about the year 500.  In 756 a _castellum Sancti Marini_ existed in the vicinity.  Our first surviving testimony to the monastery's being named after M. comes from the year 885.  In the tenth century the surrounding area was being called the parish of Sanctus Marinus and from that the rural commune that became today's republic took its name.

There are few visual medieval remains of M.'s cult.  In this fifteenth-century painting by Luca di Frosino, M. is on the right in his deacon's dalmatic and holding a stonecutter's tool:
http://tinyurl.com/cghfu
The fellow on the right is Leo.  His attire reflects his standing as the legendary protobishop of Montefeltro.


3)  Boniface I, pope (d. 422).  A native of Rome and the son of a priest (in the literal sense, as opposed to the one in which that phrase substitutes for "son of a b---h"), B. had exercised missions in Constantinople under Innocent I (r. 401-417).  Upon the death of pope St. Zosimus in December 418, the archdeacon Eulalius was elected bishop by the deacons and some presbyters and on the following day B. was elected bishop by the majority of the presbyters and with the concurrence of much of the laity in attendance.  The city prefect deciding in favor of Eulalius and so reporting matters to the emperor Honorius at Ravenna, B. was obliged to withdraw from Rome.  His supporters (who are said to have included Galla Placidia) pressed his cause with Honorius, who after other measures had failed ordered both B. and E. to leave Rome to the care of the bishop of Spoleto.  E.'s refusal to comply led to his banishment and to B.'s recognition in April 419 as bishop of Rome.

B. was able to impede temporarily but not to stop permanently the transfer of ecclesiastical jurisdiction over eastern Illyricum (incl. Thessalonica) to Constantinople once that territory had become part of the empire in the east.  He actively opposed Pelagianism in the church and got Honorius to support him in this effort.  Today is his _dies natalis_.


4)  Caletricus (d. ca. 570).  C. (in Latin, also Chaletricus; in French, Caletric, Calétric, Caltry) is traditionally the seventeenth bishop of Chartres, having as a very young man succeeded bishop St. Leobinus (Lubin) in some year prior to 567 (when he is recorded as having particpated in councils at Tours and at Paris).  He died at the age of thirty-eight in some year during the period 567-573.  An epitaph in twenty-six verses by St. Venantius Fortunatus celebrates C.'s intellect and his humanity; his sarcophagus (once preserved in the chapelle Saint-Martin in the crypt of Chartres cathedral -- can anyone supply an image of this object?) records today as his _dies natalis_.

Views and discussions of C.'s early thirteenth-century window (ca. 1205-1213) in Chartres cathedral and of some that building's sculptures uncertainly identified as C. are accessible from the thumbnails here:
http://tinyurl.com/ntpotp


5)  Ida of Herzfeld (d. early 9th cent.).  According to her late tenth-century Vita by Uffing, a monk of Werden (BHL 4143), I. was descended from Pepin of Landen and was the sister of two abbots of Corvey.  The wife of Egbert, duke of Saxony, she lived a pious life and bore him five children.  Of the three who entered religion, one also became abbot of Corvey and another became abbess of Herford.  Two sons stayed in the world, married, and rose to positions of secular prominence.  After Egbert's death I. retired from their castle at Hovestadt on the Lippe to a nearby convent at today's Herzfeld (Lkr. Soest) in Nordrhein-Westfalen, where she and her husband had previously endowed a church.

At Herzfeld I. spent her remaining years in prayer and self-denial, engaging as well in works of charity.  She had a marble sarcophagus made for herself but while she lived she had it filled daily with articles of food and dispensed these gladly to people from two nearby villages.  I. was buried next to her husband in a little oratory she had had constructed next to the church.  Postmortem miracles were reported; over time, these made her tomb a pilgrimage site.   In the tenth century, after a period of alleged decay, the monastery became a dependency of the imperial abbey of Werden and Ida's cult was renewed.  Thus far the Vita.

In 980 the bishop of Münster conducted a formal Elevatio of I.'s remains, removing them from her sarcophagus and placing them in a portable shrine upon an altar in the oratory, which now became a chapel.  The annual procession of her relics is said to have conferred a special blessing on pregnant women.

Herzfeld's Sankt-Ida-Kirche is an early twentieth-century replacement of an originally medieval predecessor.   Relatively recent excavation has uncovered the site of I.'s resting place prior to the elevation of 980.  Here's a view:
http://tinyurl.com/2oc3bq
I.'s sarcophagus, said to have been on public display from 980 onward:
http://tinyurl.com/352bwp
This is now displayed in the Confessio (that's I.'s nineteenth-century reliquary shrine above it):
http://tinyurl.com/3yrmfa
An early sixteenth-century engraving of a scene from I.'s shrine as it was then is shown here (Egbert and Ida at the building of the convent church):
http://kirchensite.de/index.php?myELEMENT=72408
The modern church at Herzfeld preserves pieces of a portal from its medieval predecessor:
http://tinyurl.com/26amjj

I.'s head reliquary of ca. 1500 has survived.  Said to have been made at Werden, it was displayed there on festal occasions in the burial church of her contemporary, St. Ludger (Liudger; d. 809), Münster's first bishop.  There are two views here:
http://tinyurl.com/3xhr7o
And another is here:
http://kirchensite.de/index.php?myELEMENT=115369


6)  Rosalia of Palermo (d. ca. 1160, supposedly).  Palermo's famous plague saint and all-around patron has a cult that is very difficult to trace before the year 1603, when an Oratorian priest and native Palermitan, Pietro Pozzo, wrote and transmitted to an Oratorian at Rome a memoir of various of the city's saints: Agatha, Oliva, and the group consisting of Nympha, Mamilianus, and their thirty-four companions in martyrdom.

After these Pozzo added a notice of a S[anta] Rosolea vergine who had owned Monte Pellegrino (a coastal elevation on the city's western edge) and who after her saintly death had been honored by the senate of Palermo with a chapel on the mountain.  This chapel had remained a city benefice for some time but three hundred years before Pozzo's writing the city had ended that arrangement and had taken legal possession of the entire mountain.  Pozzo went on to say that R.'s house in the city had also been converted to a church, that one hundred and fifty years prior to his writing the church of St. Catherine had been built next to it, that its little church of Santa Roseola was now behind the Oratorians' own church of St. Ignatius, and that it was believed that R.'s body reposed either there or in the church on the mountain.

Nothing further seems to have happened with R. until 1624 when, while Palermo was in the throes of an outbreak of pestilence, an Inventio of her putative remains occurred in a cave on Monte Pellegrino just outside the city.  Translated forthwith to Palermo's cathedral, they are kept there in a seventeenth-century reliquary.  While the Oratorians of Palermo are not known to have had a hand in the Inventio itself, by 1629/30 they were certainly promoting her feast on this day in _their_ church next to Sant'Ignazio.  Seventeenth-century accounts of R. elaborating on Pozzo's story made her a member of the royal family who in the reign of William I had retired from the court and had become a hermit residing in the cave where her relics had been found; it was also alleged that hermits had tended her cave until about the middle of the sixteenth century.

Prior to Pozzo's letter the only evidence of a cult of a St. R. at Palermo is a thirteenth-century icon once in Palermo's chiesa della Martorana and now in its Museo diocesano (R. at upper right):
http://tinyurl.com/29ky99
http://tinyurl.com/yqqfqk
It is unknown how the St. Rusalia of the icon was originally identified.  Some think it likely that she is the St. Rosula of 14. September, a companion in martyrdom of St. Cyprian of Carthage and entered with him in the martyrologies of Florus of Lyon, Ado of Vienne, and Usuard as well as in the _Martyrologium siculum_ of the sixteenth-century Messinese abbot Francesco Maurolico.

The cave identified as R.'s was certainly present on the mountain throughout out the Middle Ages.  There are expandable views of it on this page on the santuario di Santa Rosalia presently occupying the site (those interested in modern ex-votos should not miss some of these):
http://tinyurl.com/5fn757  

Best,
John Dillon
(last year's post lightly revised and with the additions of Marcellus of Chalon and Caletricus)

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JISCMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


WWW.JISCMAIL.AC.UK

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager