JiscMail Logo
Email discussion lists for the UK Education and Research communities

Help for MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Archives


MEDIEVAL-RELIGION@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION Home

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  February 2009

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION February 2009

Options

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password

Subject:

saints of the day 14. February

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 14 Feb 2009 00:17:51 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (89 lines)

medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Today (14. February) is the feast day of:

1)  Valentine of Rome (?).  As early as the fourth century Rome had a church on the Via Flaminia in the vicinity of today's Porta del Popolo that was called the _basilica Valentini_ ('Valentine's basilica').  It's now widely thought that the V. of this church was its donor and that, as with other early churches in Rome, over time the donor metamorphosed in common understanding into a saint.  The St. Valentine of this basilica 1) seems already to have been celebrated liturgically in the late sixth or early seventh century and 2) got incorporated into the legendary Passio of Marius and Martha (BHL 5543).  In the latter he is beheaded on the Via Flaminia under an emperor Claudius (presumably C. Gothicus).  The church itself is a fixture in the seventh-century guidebooks for pilgrims to Rome.

Further out on the Via Flaminia, at the Interamna that's today's Terni (TR) in Umbria, a martyr named V. is recorded for today in the (pseudo-)Hieronymian Martyrology.  Delehaye's view, now widely accepted, was that this was the saint of the Roman basilica whose cult had spread to other towns along this major Roman road.  Carolingian martyrologies combined the V. of the aforementioned Passio with the (ps.-)HM's V. of today's date.  Subsequent development of the Passio kept V. at Rome but made him bishop of Interamna.  This was the V. most widely celebrated throughout the rest of the Middle Ages and beyond; of the other saints of this name only V. of Raetia (7. January) has enjoyed a more than purely local cult.

V. lost his place on the general Roman Calendar in the wake of Vatican II but as a martyr of Rome he is still celebrated in the diocese of Rome and in the Irish Province of the Carmelite Order (which latter has relics said to be his) and is listed for today in the latest version (2001) of the RM.  Other putative relics of V. are kept in a display reliquary in the crypt of his early seventeenth-century church at Terni:
http://i.wp.pl/a/f/jpeg/19284/san_valentino_terni_pior450.jpeg
http://tinyurl.com/dyxwty
 
Here's a look at the originally twelfth-century church of San Valentino at Bitonto (BA) in Apulia:
http://www.bitontolive.it/citta/scheda.aspx?v=10

Bitonto's recently restored late twelfth- and thirteenth-century cathedral
http://tinyurl.com/28b6a3
is dedicated to Santa Maria Assunta and to San Valentino.  A brief, Italian-language account is here:
http://www.mondimedievali.net/Edifici/Puglia/Bitonto.htm
Multiple views:
http://tinyurl.com/2ehefa
http://tinyurl.com/yowdyy
Illustrated, Italian-language account of the previous church's mosaic floor:
http://tinyurl.com/yps9ry
Frescoes, in the crypt, of Sts. John the Forerunner and V.:
http://www.enec.it/Cripte/Bitonto/Index.htm

The much rebuilt chiesa di San Valentino at Sadali (CA) in southern Sardinia, an originally thirteenth-century expansion of what had been a ninth-/tenth-century church of unknown dedication, preserves a very worn late medieval portal and rose window.  Some views:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/23581762@N08/2536252070/sizes/l/
http://flickr.com/photos/landismar/2749098329/sizes/l/
http://tinyurl.com/dxaf6x
http://tinyurl.com/bk3tnm
http://tinyurl.com/aa7pyn


2)  Modestinus, Florentinus, and Flavianus (d. early fourth century, supposedly).  These three saints of the Regno are the patrons of Avellino, the capital of the Campanian province of the same name.  Their cult is at least as old the eleventh century, the date both of the earliest version of their Passio (BHL 5981b) and of a notice of a church near Avellino dedicated to M.  The Passio (BHL 5980-81), which also exists in later, expanded versions, is calqued on that of the Campanian saint Erasmus of Formia and, later, Gaeta (BHL 2578-82), with M. substituting for E. as a former hermit who initially evaded the Diocletianic persecution but who was ultimately tortured almost unto death at Antioch, came with angelic assistance (and with two companions; here F. and F.) to southern Italy, and died soon afterward.

According to a narrative account by Avellino's thirteenth-century bishop Roger (1215-42; also the author of the longest version of M.'s Passio and of three brief hymns in honor of these saints), his not quite immediate predecessor William (1166-1206) while hunting for spolia to adorn his cathedral found these saints buried near an ancient column some two miles away and, after obtaining consent of both clergy and people, had them translated thither.  It has been customary to associate these events with William's enlargement of the cathedral's main portal in 1167 (in some datings, 1166).

For the locations of versions of M.'s Passio (which, in view of its highly derivative nature, the Bollandists found unworthy to print in the _Acta Sanctorum_), see Amalia Galdi, _Santi, territori, potere e uomini nella Campania medievale (secc. XI-XII)_ (Salerno: Laveglia, 2004), pp. 213-29.  M., F., and F. are absent from the RM.


3)  Nostrianus (d. 454).  Traditionally the fifteenth bishop of Naples, this saint of the Regno erected a set of public baths in the city.  Today's touristically famous Via San Gregorio Armeno (home to Naples' sellers of _presepi_, i.e. crèche displays)
http://www.interviu.it/cards/maggio1/na201.jpg
was formerly known as the _platea Nostriana_.  Perhaps that is where N.'s baths were.

N. is thought to have been bishop when St. Gaudiosus of Abitina arrived as a fugitive from Vandal persecution in Africa.  Consequently, the arcosolium nearest G.'s in the Catacombs of San Gaudioso is sometimes said to have been his original resting place.  Bishop St. John IV (lo Scriba; 842-49) had N.'s remains translated to the Stefania, one of the predecessors of today's cathedral.  The early ninth-century Marble Calendar of Naples, incised perhaps fifty years before the earliest of our sources for N., does not include a feast for him (its saint of 14. February is Valentine).

Some views of the catacombe di San Gaudioso are here:
http://medivia.sele.it/foto/fotos/cd9_52g.jpg
http://medivia.sele.it/foto/fotos/cd9_50g.jpg


4)  Antoninus of Sorrento (d. ca. 830).  This saint of the Regno is the patron of Sorrento (NA) in Campania.  His ninth- or tenth-century Vita is one of the few surviving monuments of the early medieval duchy of Sorrento.  According to this account (BHL 582), A. was a monk who was forced to abandon his monastery during a period of Lombard raids and who attached himself to St. Catellus, bishop of Stabiae (today's Castellammare di Stabia).  In time Catellus turned over his diocese to A. and took up a hermit's existence on the height between Castellamare di Stabia and Sorrento already known at the time of the Vita as Monte Sant'Angelo.  A. joined him not long thereafter and together the two saints, inspired by the appearance of St. Michael in a vision vouchsafed to both of them, established there an oratory dedicated to the Archangel.  The Vita (whose local boosterism is one of its charms) informs us that this later became a successful pilgrimage destination.

After a while, we are told, A. moved on to Sorrento and entered a monastery near it dedicated to St. Agrippinus, where he later became abbot and where he manifested exemplary kindness and zeal for work.  Upon his death A. was claimed both by the monks and by the citizens of Sorrento proper and, so as not to be buried either outside or inside the city, was interred within the city wall.  His post-mortem miracles (protecting Sorrento from both a Muslim raid and an attack by the Lombards; curing the demonically possessed daughter of the duke) quickly confirmed his patronal status.  A.'s two best known miracles, though, are assigned to his lifetime: planting at the monastery a vine whose grapes produced exceptionally fine wine and rescuing at sea a boy who had been swallowed by a whale (the first of these is in the Vita; the second is not and probably comes from one of his sixteenth-century Lives).

Here's a view of the three peaks of Monte Sant'Angelo, part of today's Monte Faito in the Monti Lattari (in the large photograph Sorrento can be seen at the lower right):
http://www.giovis.com/sangelo3p.htm
A.'s present tomb is in Sorrento's early modern basilica di Sant'Antonino (traditionally said to occupy the site of A.'s former monastery):
http://www.sorrentoweb.com/uk/basilica/
(Note the reference to the two cetacean ribs; an offering related to the miracle?)


5)  Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius (d. 869, d. 885).  The brothers C. and M., the apostles of the Slavs, were among the seven sons of a Greek military officer at Thessaloniki and of a mother who is thought to have been Slavic-speaking.  C. (who did not take the name Cyril until 868/69, when in his last months he became a monk) was the youngest: he received an advanced education in Constantinople, was ordained priest, and after service as chartophylax of Hagia Sophia taught philosophy at the school of the Magnaura.  M. was a civil administrator in a Slavic-speaking area of Macedonia who in about 850 left his wife for a life of religion on Mount Olympus in Bithynia, where he eventually became hegumen of a monastery.  In 861 C. was sent by the imperial government to the court of the Khazar khagan to represent Christianity in a debate that also included representatives of Judaism and of Islam; in preparation for this mission he studied Hebrew.

In 863 the emperor Michael III sent both brothers as missionaries to Great Moravia at the request of its ruler, Rastislav.  In preparation for this endeavor C. developed the Glagolitic script for Slavonic tongue and translated Greek liturgical texts, the Psalter, and the New Testament into what is now known as Old Church Slavonic.  With the help of these and other vernacular materials, the brothers, who were accompanied by several South Slavs including Sts. Clement of Ohrid and Naum of Preslav (or of Ohrid), organized a Moravian church.  In 867 they were called to Rome to answer Frankish objections to their use of the vernacular.  On this occasion C. brought with him the purported relics of pope St. Clement I (he is said to have obtained these in the Crimea while he was studying there in preparation for his mission to the Khazar court).  C. died in Rome and was buried in the basilica of San Clemente.

Having obtained papal approval of his linguistic practices and been consecrated bishop by Hadrian II in 869, M. returned to Great Moravia in 870 and resumed his work, only to be imprisoned for a few years by Frankish authorities after a change of local rulers.  Pope John VIII got him freed but the price for this was the abandonment of his ecclesiastical use of Slavonic in Frankish-dominated lands.  In 1980 pope John Paul II declared C. and M. patron saints of Europe.  Here's a view of his late Holiness praying before C.'s modern portrait in mosaic located in the old basilica of San Clemente at about the spot where C. is believed to have been buried:
http://www.basilicasanclemente.com/stcyril.htm
A closer view of the portrait:
http://www.op.org/curia/sanclem/50ct09.html

Best,
John Dillon
(last year's post lightly revised) 

**********************************************************************
To join the list, send the message: join medieval-religion YOUR NAME
to: [log in to unmask]
To send a message to the list, address it to:
[log in to unmask]
To leave the list, send the message: leave medieval-religion
to: [log in to unmask]
In order to report problems or to contact the list's owners, write to:
[log in to unmask]
For further information, visit our web site:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/medieval-religion.html

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

JiscMail Tools


RSS Feeds and Sharing


Advanced Options


Archives

October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996


JiscMail is a Jisc service.

View our service policies at https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/policyandsecurity/ and Jisc's privacy policy at https://www.jisc.ac.uk/website/privacy-notice

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager