medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture
Today (14. November) is the feast day of:
1) Hypatius of Gangra (d. ca. 360?). The wonder-working remains of H. were venerated in late antiquity at his grave at Gangra in Paphlagonia (now the Turkish provincial capital of Çankırı). He was believed to have been its bishop, to have taken part in the First Council of Nicaea, to have rid the emperor Constantius I of a dragon that had taken possession of his treasure, and to have died a martyr at the hands of Novatianist schismatics who stoned him. These matters and others are related in H.'s originally sixth- or seventh-century Bios (BHG 759) and in his Martyrion (i.e. Greek Passio; BHG 760), whose reputations for accuracy are not high.
H. is the patron saint of Tiggiano (LE) in southern Apulia, where his liturgical feast is celebrated on 18. January and his patronal one is celebrated on the following day. His commemoration under today in the RM is down to Cardinal Baronio, who opted for the date under which H. gets the longest notice in Greek synaxaries. In Italian H.'s name is ordinarily given as Ipazio; at Tiggiano, he's Ippazio.
2) John of Trogir (Ivan Ursini, Giovanni Orsini; d. 1111?).
According to the his early thirteenth-century Vita (BHL 4441), J., a member of the prominent Roman family of the Orsini, was born at Rome in 1032. Sent to Dalmatia to help consolidate the work of a papal legation under Alexander II, he was in 1064 consecrated bishop of Trogir (in Italian, Traù) in today's Croatia. In addition to leading a life of exemplary holiness, J. guided his church through a period of liturgical and administrative reform and his city through a period of political peril. He is credited with arranging Trogir's peaceful capitulation to king Coloman of Hungary in 1105, a piece of _Realpolitik_ that was followed by a charter of liberties for which the people of his city remained very grateful.
Lifetime miracles were followed by numerous post-mortem ones. In 1162 (traditionally, 1171) there was a formal Invention of J.'s remains, followed by the first of his two translations within Trogir's cathedral of Sv. Lovre (St. Lawrence). A canonization process began in 1192. The earliest version of J.'s Office at Trogir dates from the twelfth or thirteenth century. In 1438 a papal indulgence was granted in connection with the observance of his _dies natalis_ (14. November). Although J. continues to be called 'Blessed' in recent scholarship, both his entry in the _Bibliotheca Sanctorum_ (vol. 6; 1965) and his listing for today in the latest version of the RM (2001) style him 'Saint'.
For J.'s political activity and a critical examination of his Vita, see Ludwig Steindorff, "Die Vita beati Iohannis Traguriensis als Quelle zur Geschichte der dalmatinischen Stadt Trogir im 12. Jahrhundert", _Südost-Forschungen_ 47 (1988), 17-36. J.'s Office is edited from the version of 1434 (with variants from earlier and later versions) by Antonio Lovato, "L'ufficio ritmico del beato Giovanni Orsini vescovo di Trogir/Traù (1064-1111)", in Stanislav Tuksar, ed., Srednjovjekovne glazbene kulture Jadrana. Medieval Cultures of the Adriatic Region_ (Zagreb: Hrvatsko Musikološko Društvo / Croatian Musicological Society, 2000), pp. 85-123.
Herewith some views of Trogir's originally thirteenth-century cathedral of Sv. Lovre.
West portal (1240; by a magister Raduanus):
J. is also Trogir's civic patron. Here he is in a fifteenth-century statue atop the seventeenth-century North Town Gate:
3) John of Tufara (Bl.; d. 1170). Today's less well known holy person of the Regno was born at Tufara (CB) in Molise. He is said to have studied at Paris as a young man and then to have spent at least fifty years of monastic and eremitical life (mostly the latter) before founding in the 1150s the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria di Gualdo Mazzoca in today's Foiano (BN) in northeastern Campania, where his memory was preserved and his feast day was observed on this date (his _dies natalis_). Whereas several thirteenth-century attempts to have J. canonized were unsuccessful, his cult survives at Foiano, at Tufara, and at San Bartolomeo in Galdo (BN).
A view of Tufara's originally twelfth-century church of Santi Pietro e Paolo, where J. is said to have served as sacristan:
And a view of (who could doubt it?) the very house at Tufara in which J. was born, later converted into an oratory:
4) Lawrence O'Toole (d. 1180). L. (in Irish, Lorcán Ua Tuathail) was abbot of Glendalough before becoming archbishop of Dublin in 1162. The Anglo-Norman conquest of Leinster and Meath took place some eight years later and L. spent much of his pontificate as a subject of Henry II, with whom he had to negotiate on a variety of matters. He had a reputation among non-Irish (including Gerald of Wales) for being very zealous for his people; he was also something of a reformer. By 1176/77 L. had introduced canons regular into that city's cathedral. In 1179 he took part in the Third Lateran Council, returned to Ireland as the resident papal legate, and held at least one synod to promote its decrees.
In late October or early November L. traveled to Normandy to conduct some business with Henry. While there he resided with the canons regular of Eu and it was at Eu that he died on this day and was buried. By 1191 both that house and the church in Ireland were seeking his canonization. L.'s miracles were collected, petitions for his canonization were laid before a succession of popes, and his cause was successful in 1225 under Honorius III. Shortly after L.'s canonization the first of his several Vitae was composed (BHL 4743, etc.; all seemingly written at Eu).
A reliquary said to contain L.'s heart is displayed in Dublin's Trinity Cathedral (a.k.a. Christ Church):
Some views of the originally twelfth- and thirteenth-century (1186-1240) église collégiale Notre-Dame et Saint-Laurent at Eu (Seine-Maritime):
L.'s _gisant_ is in the crypt (originally twelfth-century; reworked in 1828):
(John of Trogir and John of Tufara lightly revised from last year's post)
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