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Re: bones as fuel


"Barry W. Baker" <[log in to unmask]>


[log in to unmask]


Wed, 3 Aug 2005 07:28:39 -0700





text/plain (1 lines)

Jill wrote: "...you ... mentioned heavy fragmentation and surface features

that resulted from high combustion (p. 526).  Do you have more specific

info on those?"


There are many papers that have focused on the taphonomy of burned bone.

Some of these are listed below.  See especially the papers by Buikstra and


Archer, M., I. A. Crawford, and D. Merrilees. 1980. Incisions, Breakages

and Charring, Some Probably Man-Made, in Fossil Bones from Mammoth Cave,

Western Australia.  Alcheringa 4(1-2):115-131.

Bennett, Joanne L. 1996. Thermal Alteration of Bone: Experiments in

Post-Burial Modification.  Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of

Anthropology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Bennett, Joanne L. 1999. Thermal Alteration of Buried Bone.  Journal of

Archaeological Science 26(1):1-8.

Black, Andrew T. 1989. The Effects of Cooking on the Fracture Pattern of

Bovine Bone: A Microstructural Study.  Unpublished Master’s thesis,

Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton.

Bonucci, E. and G. Graziani. 1975. Comparative Thermogravimetric, X-ray

Diffraction and Electron Microscope Investigations of Burnt Bones from

Recent, Ancient and Prehistoric Age.  Atti Della Accademia Nazionale dei

Lincei, Rendiconti Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali,

Series 8(59):517-534.

Brandtmiller, B., and J. E. Buikstra. 1984. Effects of Burning on Human

Bone Microstructure: A Preliminary Study.  Journal of Forensic Sciences


Buikstra, J. E., and M. Swegle. 1989. Bone Modification Due to Burning:

Experimental Evidence.  In Bone Modification, edited by R. Bonnichsen, and

M. H. Sorg, pp. 247-258.  Center for the Study of First Americans, Orono,


Burns, K. 1987. The Effects of Drying and Burning on Human Bones and Teeth.

Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of

Florida, Gainesville.

Correia, P. 1977. Fire Modification of Bone: A Review of the Literature.

In Forensic Taphonomy: The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, edited by W.

Haglund and M. Sorg, pp. 275-293.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

David, B. 1990. How Was This Bone Burnt?  In Problem Solving in Taphonomy:

Archaeological and Palaeontological Studies from Europe, Africa and Oceania

, edited by Su Solomon, Iain Davidson, and Di Watson, pp. 65-79.  Tempus,

Archaeology and Material Culture Studies in Anthropology Vol. 2.

University of Queensland, Australia.

Gilchrist, R., and H. C. Mytum. 1986. Experimental Archaeology and Burnt

Animal Bone from Archaeological Sites.  Circaea 4:29-38.

Herrmann, B. 1977. On Histological Investigations of Cremated Human

Remains.  Journal of Human Evolution 6:101-103.

Hermann, B. 1977. Concerning the Dependency of Shrinkage on Mineral Content

in Experimentally Burned Bones.  Anthropological Anzeig 36(1):7-12. [In


Holden, J. L., P. P. Phankey, and J. G. Clement. 1995. Scanning Electron

Microscope Observations of Incinerated Human Femoral Bone: A Case Study.

Forensic Science International 74:17-28.

Holden, J. L., P. P. Phankey, and J. G. Clement. 1995. Scanning Electron

Microscope Observations of Heat-Treated Human Bone.  Forensic Science

International 74:39-37.

Knight, J. A. 1985. Differential Preservation of Calcined Bone at the

Hirundo Site, Alton, Maine.  Unpublished Master's thesis, Department of

Anthropology.  Orono, Maine.

McCutcheon, P. T. 1992. Burned Archaeological Bone.  In Deciphering a Shell

Midden, edited by Julie Stein, pp. 347-370.  Academic Press, New York.

Nelson, R. 1992. A Microscopic Comparison of Fresh and Burned Bone.

Journal of Forensic Sciences 37(4):1055-1060.

Nicholson, Rebecca A. 1993. A Morphological Investigation of Burnt Animal

Bone and an Evaluation of its Utility in Archaeology.  Journal of

Archaeological Science 20:411-428.

Nicholson, Rebecca A. 1995. Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire: What Value

are Burnt Fish Bones to Archaeology?  Archaeofauna 4:47-64.

Schiegl, Solveig, Paul Goldbert, Ofer Bar-Yosef, and Steve Weiner. 1996.

Ash Deposits in Hayonim and Kebara Caves, Israel: Macroscopic, Microscopic

and Mineralogical Observations, and Their Archaeological Implications.

Journal of Archaeological Science 23(5):763-781.

Shahack-Gross, Ruth, Ofer Bar-Yosef, and Steve Weiner. 1997. Black-Coloured

Bones in Hayonim Cave, Israel: Differentiating Between Burning and Oxide

Staining.  Journal of Archaeological Science 24(5):439-446.

Shipman, P., G. Foster, and M. Schoeninger. 1984. Burnt Bones and Teeth: An

Experimental Study of Color, Morphology, Crystal Structure and Shrinkage.

Journal of Archaeological Science 11:307-325.

Sillen, A., and T. Hoering. 1993. Chemical Characterization of Burnt Bones

from Swartkrans.  In Swartkrans: A Cave's Chronicle of Early Man, edited by

C. K. Brain, pp. 243-249.  Transvaal Museum Monograph No. 8.  Pretoria.

Spennemann, D. H. R., and S. M. Colley. 1989. Fire in a Pit: The Effects of

Burning on Faunal Remains.  ArchaeoZoologia 3:51-64.

Stiner, M. C., S. L. Kuhn, S. Weiner, and O. Bar-Yosef. 1995. Differential

Burning, Recrystallization and Fragmentation of Archaeological Bone.

Journal of Archaeological Science 22(2):223-237.

Taylor, R. E., P. E. Hare, and T. D. White. 1995. Geochemical Criteria for

Thermal Alteration of Bone.  Journal of Archaeological Science


Von Endt, D. W., and D. J. Ortner. 1984. Experimental Effects of Bone Size

and Temperature on Bone Diagenesis.  Journal of Archaeological Science


Walters, I. 1988. Fire and Bones: Patterns of Discard.  In Archaeology with

Ethnography: An Australian Perspective, edited by B. Meehan and R. Jones,

pp. 215-221.  Australian National University, Canberra.

Wandsnider, LuAnn. 1997. The Roasted and the Boiled: Food Composition and

Heat Treatment with Special Emphasis on Pit-Hearth Cooking.  Journal of

Anthropological Archaeology 16(1):1-48.


Barry W. Baker

Forensic Scientist - Morphology

Morphology Section

U.S. National Fish & Wildlife Forensics Laboratory

1490 East Main Street

Ashland, Oregon 97520-1310


Phone: 541.482.4191

Fax: 541.482.4989

E-mail: [log in to unmask]

Web: http://www.lab.fws.gov

Adjunct Professor of Anthropology

Department of Sociology and Anthropology

Southern Oregon University

Ashland, Oregon

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