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MEDIEVAL-RELIGION  August 2016

MEDIEVAL-RELIGION August 2016

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Subject:

FEAST - A Saint for the Day (August 19): St. Louis of Toulouse

From:

John Dillon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

medieval-religion - Scholarly discussions of medieval religious culture <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 19 Aug 2016 08:30:40 +0000

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medieval-religion: Scholarly discussions of medieval religion and culture

Louis of Toulouse (d. 1297;  also Louis of Anjou and Louis the Bishop) was the second son of Charles, duke of Calabria, the future Charles II of mostly mainland Sicily (_vulgo_, Kingdom of Naples).  He was born in 1274, perhaps in Provence, though modern conjecture usually prefers the castle at today's Nocera Inferiore (SA) in coastal Campania.  In 1288 Louis and two of his younger brothers were sent to Catalunya as hostages in exchange for their father, who by succession should now have been king but who in 1284 had been taken prisoner by naval forces of insular Sicily at the battle of Castellammare (Battle of the Gulf of Naples).  The brothers remained there until 1295, supervised by Franciscan tutors.  During this time Louis chose a life of religion and must have made this known, as pope Celestine V (St. Peter Celestine) in an appointment that was never effectuated offered him the diocese of Lyon.  Early in 1296 Louis' younger bother Robert (who had also been one of the hostages) was made vicar of the realm and Louis himself formally renounced his place in the line of succession to the thrones of Sicily and Jerusalem.  His ordination to the priesthood followed on 19. May in Naples' recently built Franciscan church of San Lorenzo (now San Lorenzo Maggiore).

In December 1296 Louis made his profession as a Franciscan and was appointed bishop of Toulouse by Boniface VIII.  He proceeded toward his diocese the following May.  Louis was still at his family's residence in today's Brignoles (Var), the summer home of the counts of Provence, when he died on this day after a brief illness.  He was buried in the Franciscan church at Marseille.  Louis left behind approximately fifteen sermons, some hymns, and a reputation for holiness.  An Angevin campaign to have him canonized was successful in 1317.  In the early fifteenth century Alfonso V of Aragon (not yet Alfonso I of mostly mainland Sicily) had Louis' by this time somewhat diminished relics removed to the cathedral of Valencia, where they remain today in an eighteenth-century chapel dedicated to him.  Herewith a few views of his relics there:
http://tinyurl.com/hetvqmw
http://www.lasprovincias.es/las_provincias/noticias/201511/22/media/91422027.jpg
http://www.preguntasantoral.es/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/luis_anjou_valencia2.jpg


Some period-pertinent images of St. Louis of Anjou:

a) as depicted (presenting a crown to his younger brother Robert) by Simone Martini in his early fourteenth-century altarpiece of Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1318) in the Museo nazionale di Capodimonte in Naples:
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/simone/4altars/1louis/1s_louis.jpg
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/simone/4altars/1louis/2s_louis.jpg

b) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Francis of Assisi) by Simone Martini in an earlier fourteenth-century fresco (ca. 1318) in the lower church of the basilica di San Francesco in Assisi: 
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/simone/3assisi/transept/5saints1.jpg
Detail view (Louis of Anjou):
http://www.thais.it/speciali/assisi/SimoneMartini/hi_res/026.jpg

c) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Louis, king of France) by Simone Martini in an early fourteenth-century fresco (ca. 1318-1320) in the cappella di San Martino in the lower church of the basilica di San Francesco in Assisi:
http://tinyurl.com/qdh76pj

d) as depicted (bottom register at right; at left, St. Elizabeth of Hungary) by the Master of Figline in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (after 1317) ordinarily kept in the Museo d'arte sacra della Collegiata di Santa Maria Assunta in Figline e Incisa Valdarno (FI), Tuscany:
http://tinyurl.com/pyhfx3k
Detail view (Louis):
http://tinyurl.com/npwh844
Detail view (trampled crown):
http://tinyurl.com/nocqgdv

e) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Mary Magdalene) by Ugolino da Siena (Ugolino di Nerio) in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1320) in the Museum of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/24349544@N04/5561836647
Detail view (Louis of Anjou):
http://tinyurl.com/nuxb9rd

f) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century fresco (ca. 1320) in the cappella di San Ludovico in the former chiesa di San Marco in Salerno, now part of the Archivio di Stato in that city:
http://tinyurl.com/qfgnx2v
http://digilander.libero.it/salernostoria/c8abateconfortipc%2002.JPG
https://ilpalazzodisichelgaita.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/15220.jpg

g) as depicted (at left) by Taddeo Gaddi (attrib.) in an earlier fourteenth-century glass window in the basilica di Santa Croce in Florence (betw. 1328 and 1332):
http://therosewindow.com/pilot/Florence-sta-croce/sIX-2.htm
http://www.icvbc.cnr.it/bivi/schede/Toscana/Firenze/8scroce1.htm

h) as portrayed by the Master of Rieux in an earlier or mid-fourteenth-century statue (ca. 1330-1350) in the Musée des Augustins in Toulouse:
http://tinyurl.com/pkew6gx

i) as depicted (at upper right) in the  fourteenth-century Hungarian _Chronicon pictum_ (_Képes Krónika_ or _Illustrated Chronicle_; betw. 1358 and 1373; Budapest, National Széchényi Library):
http://tinyurl.com/h6trxvt
Detail view:
http://tinyurl.com/zdp8s87

j) as depicted (upper illumination, bottom register, second from right) in the later fourteenth-century _Petites Heures de Jean de Berry_ (ca. 1375; Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 18014, fol. 105v):
http://tinyurl.com/joyh257

k) as depicted by Serafino Serafini in two later fourteenth-century frescoes (after 1375) in the chiesa di San Francesco in Mantua:
1) Louis' consecration by Boniface VIII:  http://tinyurl.com/od2t3oz
2) Louis' death: http://tinyurl.com/pyjt64t

l) as depicted (at right; at left, St. John the Evangelist) as depicted by Tommaso del Mazza (formerly known as the Master of St. Verdiana) in a later fourteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1386) in the Museé du Petit Palais, Avignon:
http://tinyurl.com/qhwknz9

m) as portrayed in a late fourteenth-century polychromed wood reliquary bust (with gesso and gilding) in the Cleveland Museum of Art:
https://www.clevelandart.org/art/2011.153
https://www.flickr.com/photos/elizabethe/8601399429/

n) as portrayed in a late fourteenth-century limestone sculptural element from Lombardy offered for sale at Sotheby's in 2009 (view and description at bottom of the page):
http://tinyurl.com/969atrf
Enlarged image:
http://tinyurl.com/8qjmy9k

o) as depicted in the late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century frescoes on the chiesa / cripta della Santa Croce ai Lagnoni in Andria (BT) in Puglia:
http://andriarte.it/SantaCroce/immagini/absidedx-SanLudovicoDiTolosa-CD.jpg

p) as portrayed in a fifteenth-century polychromed stone statue in the église Sainte-Radegonde in Giverny (Eure):
http://tinyurl.com/nted4cz

q) as portrayed in a fifteenth-century statue over the principal entrance to the chiesa di Sant'Alvise (i.e. St. Louis, in this case the present one) in Venice:
http://tinyurl.com/qelhbf9

r) as depicted (right-hand column) in the early fifteenth-century Hours of René of Anjou (ca. 1405-1410; London, BL, Egerton MS 1070, fol. 99r):
http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=egerton_ms_1070_f099r

s) as portrayed by Donatello in an earlier fifteenth-century gilded bronze statue originally made for the Orsanmichele in Florence (ca. 1413 or early 1420s) and now in that city's Museo dell'Opera di Santa Croce:
http://tinyurl.com/hoyhjef
Detail views here:
http://tinyurl.com/99sr3wt
After the recent restoration:
http://toutelaculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/louvre-0547.jpg

t) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Francis of Assisi) in an earlier fifteenth-century hand-colored print from the Steiermark (ca. 1420; Graz, Karl-Franzens-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. 529, preliminary leaf [the ms. itself is from ca. 1440]):
http://tinyurl.com/q5ahysq

u) as depicted (at center, flanked by Bl. Gerard of Villamagna and by St. Anthony of Padua) by Lorenzo di Bicci in an earlier fifteenth-century panel painting (?ca. 1427-1429) exhibited as part of a show entitled "Ritorni" in the Museo Stefano Bardini in Florence in October 2013 in conjunction with the XXVIII Biennale della Mostra Mercato Internazionale dell’Antiquariato di Firenze:
http://tinyurl.com/j5vce2o

v) as twice depicted (both times as a chubby-faced boy bishop) in the earlier fifteenth-century Breviary of Marie de Savoie (ca. 1430; Chambéry, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 4, fols. 589v and 595r):
1) fol. 589v: http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht1/IRHT_035708-p.jpg
2) fol. 595r: http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht1/IRHT_035719-p.jpg

w) as portrayed (lower register at far right ; at near right, St. Bartholomew the Apostle) in the central section of the earlier fifteenth-century polychromed wooden Marienkrönungsaltar (ca. 1440; restored in the 1870s and again in the 1990s) in the Marienkirche in Stralsund:
http://tinyurl.com/ogoclvh
Detail view (Bartholomew and Louis):
http://tinyurl.com/ndtkcqm

x) as portrayed by Donatello in a mid-fifteenth-century bronze statue on the main altar (1444-1450) in the basilica del Santo in Padua:
http://www.wga.hu/art/d/donatell/2_mature/padova/2altar03.jpg

y) as portrayed in a mid-fifteenth-century polychromed wooden statue (ca. 1450) in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nürnberg:
http://tinyurl.com/q4q7nj8
Detail view:
http://tinyurl.com/num264q

z) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Jerome; at center, St. Bernardino of Siena) by Antonio Vivarini in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1451-1456) in the chiesa di San Francesco della Vigna in Venice:
http://tinyurl.com/pz9solk

aa) as depicted in grisaille by Jean le Tavernier in the mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Philip of Burgundy (ca. 1451-1460; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 2, fol. 268v):
http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f2%3A268v_min

bb) as depicted (at upper right) on a wing of a mid- or later fifteenth-century altarpiece (ca. 1451-1475) from Venice in the Metropolitan Museum in New York:
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/463180

cc) as depicted by Antonio Vivarini in a mid- or later fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1451-1475) in the collections of the Musée du Louvre in Paris (image expandable):
http://cartelen.louvre.fr/cartelen/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=1244
Said to be in storage at the Musée du Petit Palais in Avignon:
http://tinyurl.com/houtvsc

dd) as depicted by Lorentino d'Arezzo in a mid- or later fifteenth-century fresco (ca. 1451-1475) in Arezzo's basilica di San Francesco:
http://tinyurl.com/j528fwq

ee) as depicted (at right, flanking the BVM and Christ Child; at left St. Jerome) by Andrea Mantegna in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1455) in the Musée Jacquemart-André in Paris [zoomable image]:
http://tinyurl.com/zkhensj

ff) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Bernardino of Siena) by Michele Pannonio in a mid- or later fifteenth-century panel painting in the Pinacoteca nazionale in Ferrara:
http://tinyurl.com/og73lvb

gg) as depicted by Piero della Francesca in a mid-fifteenth-century fresco (1460) in the Pinacoteca comunale of Sansepolcro (AR) in Tuscany:
http://tinyurl.com/hfnnp4w

hh) as depicted (at right; at left, St. John the Baptist) by Bartolomeo Vivarini and Andrea Vivarini in a later fifteenth-century panel painting (1463 or 1464) in the collections of the Musée du Louvre in Paris and on deposit in the Musée du Petit Palais in Avignon (image expandable):
http://tinyurl.com/jou847f

ii) as depicted (at center; at left St. Oswald; at right, St. Louis, king of France) in the upper right-hand panel of the later fifteenth-century principal altar (1470-1478) of the Katedrála Sv. Martina in Spišská Kapitula, a locality of Spišské Podhradie in Slovakia:
http://tarvos.imareal.oeaw.ac.at/server/images/7012197.JPG

jj) as depicted (upper register at right, after Bl. John Duns Scotus and Clare of Assisi) by Carlo Crivelli in a later fifteenth-century panel painting (1471?; from his now dismembered  Montefiore altarpiece) in the Polo Museale di San Francesco at  Montefiore dell'Aso (AP) in the Marche:
http://sirpac.cultura.marche.it/SirpacIntraWeb/storage/Label/1282/384/32E.jpg
Detail view (Louis):
http://tinyurl.com/nov9eok

kk) as depicted (at upper right, second from right; at far right, St. Bernardino of Siena) by Vincenzo Foppa in a later fifteenth-century altarpiece (1476) in the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan:
http://www.wga.hu/art/f/foppa/altarpie.jpg
Detail view (grayscale; Louis of Anjou and Bernardino of Siena):
http://catalogo.fondazionezeri.unibo.it/foto/80000/58400/58140.jpg

ll) as depicted (second from right; at far right, St. Francis of Assisi) in a late fifteenth-century altarpiece (1481) by Vittore Crivelli in the Philadelphia Museum of Art:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/5895412774
Detail view (Louis of Anjou):
https://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6032/5894846043_36988814dc_b.jpg

mm) as depicted in a late fifteenth-century Roman breviary (betw. 1482 and 1500; Clermont-Ferrand, Bibliothèque du patrimoine, ms. 69, fol. 530v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht4/IRHT_081374-p.jpg

nn) as depicted by Cosmè Tura in a late fifteenth-century panel painting (1484?; on canvas; transferred from wood) in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:
http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/437850

oo) as depicted (at left; at right, St, Bernardino of Siena) by Pinturicchio in his late fifteenth-century frescoes (1485-1486) in the cappella Bufalini in Rome's chiesa di Santa Maria in Aracoeli:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/hen-magonza/4638720174

pp) as portrayed (scenes from his legend) by Jakob Mülholzer in two of his panel paintings on the wings of the late fifteenth-century St. Louis of Toulouse altar (ca. 1490-1500) in the St. Jakobskirche in Rothenburg ob der Tauber (Lkr. Ansbach) in Bavaria:
1) http://tinyurl.com/qdfo53r
2) http://tinyurl.com/q92hoq9
The altar as a whole:
http://tinyurl.com/pqr58bb
The slightly later central sculpture, by another hand, is listed as item vv), below.

qq) as depicted at the beginning of his Office in the late fifteenth-century Diurnal de René, roi de Sicile (1492-1493; Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 10491, fol. 210v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8427237h/f434.item.zoom

rr) as depicted (left margin at bottom) in a hand-colored woodcut in the Beloit College copy of Hartmann Schedel's late fifteenth-century _Weltchronik_ (_Nuremberg Chronicle_; 1493) at fol. CCIXv:
https://www.beloit.edu/nuremberg/book/6th_age/left_page/122%20(Folio%20CCXIXv).pdf

ss) as depicted (at far right, after St. Lawrence of Rome) by Pietro Perugino in a late fifteenth-century panel painting (1495-1496) of the Madonna and Child with Perugia's four holy protectors now in Città del Vaticano in the Pinacoteca Vaticana:
http://tinyurl.com/opz4k5h

tt) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Bernardino of Siena; at center, St. Catherine of Alexandria) by a Spanish-trained artist in an early sixteenth-century panel painting in the Château de Langeais in Langeais (Indre-et-Loire):
http://tinyurl.com/hd5vfj7

uu) as depicted in an early sixteenth-century fresco (1504) in the chiesa di San Ludovico al Bretto (dedicated to the present Louis) in Camerata Cornello (BG) in Lombardy:
http://tinyurl.com/28bbbfc

vv) as portrayed by Tilman Riemenschneider (attrib.) in the early sixteenth-century central statue (ca. 1505?) of the St. Louis of Toulouse altar in the St. Jakobskirche in Rothenburg ob der Tauber (Lkr. Ansbach) in Bavaria:
http://tinyurl.com/p2dw7cm

ww) as depicted by Sebastiano del Piombo in an early sixteenth-century painting (ca. 1507-1510) on an organ shutter from Venice's chiesa di San Bartolomeo and now in the Gallerie dell'Accademia in that city:
http://www.wga.hu/art/s/sebastia/organ3.jpg

xx) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Bernardino of Siena) by Moretto da Brescia (Alessandro Bonvicino) on a wing from a dismembered earlier sixteenth-century altarpiece (1529-1530) in the Musée du Louvre in Paris:
http://tinyurl.com/orpvlb6
Detail view:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/7711591@N04/5491273910

Best,
John Dillon
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