LOCATED COLLECTIONS - RECENT SPONGES


"Albatross"
see: Pacific Expeditions
Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition, 1947-48

"Albatross" Pacific Expeditions (US Fish Commission)
Reported: Located:
1887-92 Expeds. to Eastern Pacific Hexactinellida - Schulze 1899
Wilson 1904 -
[Xenophyophoria - Schulze 1906; established as Protozoan - Tendal 1972]
MCZ
Eastern Tropical Pacific, 1904-5 (including 1888-1904 Expeds.) Geodidae - Lendenfeld 1910
Erylidae - Lendenfeld 1910
Hexactinellida - Lendenfeld 1915
MCZ
NW Pacific, 1906 Calcarea - Hozawa 1918
Hexactinellida - Okada 1932
USNM
BMNH (pars)
Philippines, 1907-10 Siliceous & Horny - Wilson 1925

"Alert"
see: British North Polar Expedition, 1875
"Alert" Expedition, Indo-Pacific, 1878-82

"Alert" Expedition, Indo-Pacific, 1878-82
Reported: South America - Ridley 1881
Melanesia & Western Indian Ocean - Ridley 1884
Located: BMNH

Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions
see: Dickinson's Gulf of California Sponges

Annandale Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: Calcutta - Zoological survey of India
Catalogued: Kherd & Chaturvedi, 1976

"Antarctica"
see: Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1901-3

"Argo" Expedition, West Indies, 1876-77
(including Cawne Warren's Acapulco Collection)
Reported: Carter 1882, 1883
T. Higgin 1877
Located: Bequested to Liverpool Free Museum, UK (now Merseyside County Museums), and the only sponge collection there to survive the May, 1941 air-raid. The final phase of checking a recently produced catalogue shows that the collection is intact except for: Tuba lineata var. flabelliformis, Halichondria birotulata, Higginsia coralloides Higgin et varr., and Donatia parasitica
BMNH (pars) - (see: Wiedenmayer 1977)

Arndt Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: ZMB
ZMH
ZMK - for North Sea material [Tendal 1985]

"Atlantide"
see: Danish Expedition to Tropical West Africa, 1945-46

Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14 (led by Sir Douglas Mawson)
Reported: Calcarea - Dendy 1918
Non-Calcarea - Burton 1938
Located: AM
BMNH (pars)

"Bache" Expedition, NW Atlantic (US Fish Commission)
Reported: Verrill 1874
Hexactinellida - Schulze 1899
Located: USNM

"Belgica"
see: Expedition Antarctique Belge, 1897-99

"Blake" Expedition, Mexico & Caribbean (US Coast Survey)
Reported: Lithistida - Schmidt 1879
Hexactinellida - Schmidt 1880
Located: USNM
MCZ

Bowerbank Sponges
Reported: His Collection of about 3, 000 specimens and slides was purchased by the BMNH in 1877. It includes both his foreign and British sponges, many of the latter being described in his 4 volume work, "A Monograph of the British Spongiadae" published in 1864, 1866, 1874 and posthumously by A.M. Norman in 1882. During his lifetime, Bowerbank donated specimens to the Royal College of Surgeons, London, but the collection was destroyed during an air-raid in March, 1941. It is not known exactly what has been lost from there, but an inventory will become available in time. So far, 8 sponges have been found none of which are types.

Breitfuss' Calcareous Sponges
Reported: 1896-1912
Located: ZIL (pars)
see: Bremer Expedition, Ost-Spitzbergen, 1889
Dr. L. Plate's Chile Coll., 1894-95

Bremer Expedition, Ost-Spitzbergen, 1889
Reported: Calcarea - Breitfuss 1896, 1898
Located: PMJ
BMNH (pars)

Brien's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: Tervuren, Belgium

British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13, "Terra Nova"
Reported: Non-Antarctic (mainly New Zealand) - Dendy 1924
Antarctic - Burton 1929
Located: BMNH

British, Australian, New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition, 1929-31
(B.A.N.Z.A.R. Expedition)
Reported: Antarctic - Koltun 1976
Non-Antarctic - in preparation? Koltun
Located: ZIL? - "not in Adelaide" [Wiedenmayer 1985]
BMNH (pars)

"Calypso" Expeditions
Reported: Red Sea, 1951-52 - Levi 1958
Aldabra, Indian Ocean, 1954 - Levi 1961
Golfe de Guinée, 1956 - Lévi 1959
South America (Atlantic), 1961-62 - Boury-Esnault 1973
Located: MNHN

Cambridge Univ. Expedition, Suez Canal, 1924
Reported: Burton 1924
Located: BMNH

Carter's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: 349 specimens and slide preparations presented by Carter in 1890. The collection contains examples of all the species known at that time.
Reported in a series of papers by Carter beginning in 1848, and particularly his 1881 paper.
Located: BMNH

Carter's Marine Sponges
Reported: J.E. Gray, Keeper of Zoology at the BMNH, engaged his friend and colleague, H.J. Carter, to classify the then existing BMNH sponge collection. A series of publications by Carter, beginning in the 1870's, resulted from this collaboration.
Located: BMNH

"Challenger" Expedition, 1873-76
Reported: Calcarea - Polejaeff 1883
Keratosa - Polejaeff 1884
Hexactinellida - Schulze 1887
Monaxonida - Ridley & Dendy 1887
Tetractinellida - Sollas 1888
[Deep-Sea Keratosa (= Xenophyophoria) - Haeckel 1889; established as Rhizopodea Protozoans by Tendal 1972; specimens transferred to Protozoa Section, BMNH in 1979]
Located: the policy at the time was to sort the material into primary type material and 'duplicates', the types being deposited at the BMNH and the 'duplicates' being distributed to many of the regional museums in the UK, e.g. Dublin, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, etc., where much of it remains. Also, specimens were sent abroad, e.g. ZMB, "where schizotypes of all species are registered. [Wiedenmayer 1983]

Crossland, Zanzibar & British East Africa Coll., 1901-2
Reported: Calcarea - Jenkin 1908
Located: Zoology Museum, Cambridge Univ., UK
BMNH (pars)

Crossland, Cape Verde Island Coll., 1904
Reported: Calcarea - Thacker 1908
Located: Zoology Museum, Cambridge Univ., UK
BMNH (pars)

Crossland, Red Sea Coll., 1904-5
Reported: Calcarea - Row 1909
Non-Calcarea - Row 1911
Located: BMNH

Czerniavsky's Black Sea Sponges
Reported: 1880
Located: ZIL (some slides only)

Dakin's Abrolhos Island, Western Australia Coll.
Reported: Dendy & Frederick 1924
Located: BMNH

Danish Arctic Expedition, 1882-83, "Dihmphna"
Reported: Levinsen 1887
Located: ZMC
BMNH (pars)

Danish Deep-Sea World-Wide Expedition, 1950-52, "Galathea"
Reported: Demosponges & Hyalosponges - Lévi 1964
[Xenophyophoria - established as Rhizopodea Protozoans by Tendal 1972]
Located: ZMC

Danish Expedition to Tropical West Africa, 1945-46, "Atlantide"
Reported: Burton 1956
Located: ZMC
BMNH (pars)

Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1895-96
Reported: Homorrhaphidae & Heterorrhaphidae - Lundbeck 1902
Desmacidonidae - Lundbeck 1905, 1910
Hexactinellida - Burton 1928
Located: ZMC
BMNH (pars)

de Laubenfels' Sponges
Reported: California - 1927
California - 1932
Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-Sea Expedition, Puerto Rican Deep - 1934
Dry Tortugas - 1936
Panama - 1936
Presidential Cruise (Roosevelt), Galapagos, 1938 - 1939
Cpt. R.A. Bartlett Coll., Greenland - 1942
Bermudan Coll. 1950 - "the principal part of the collection" was to be deposited at the Bermuda Government Aquarium, Flatts, Bermuda, "but has not yet been located" (Hartman 1965). If not found, the "duplicates and syntypes" deposited at the BMNH become potential neotype material.
Hawaii - 1951
West-Central Pacific - 1954 - Located: also at Hawaii (pars)?
Hawaii - 1957
Located: All at USNM
ZMB (pars) & BMNH (pars) for Californian sponges
CAS (pars) - "for pre-1932 Californian sponges" [Austin 1985]

Dendy Bequest
Reported: The collection came to the BMNH in 1925 and includes specimens and slide preparations from many of the sponges which he studied during his lifetime, including the faunistic reports:
Fauna of Madras - reported 1887, 1889
West Indian Chalininae - reported 1887, 1890
see: Dakin's Abrolhos Island, Western Australia Coll.
Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries Coll., 1902
Hornell's Okhamandal Coll., 1905-6
Victorian sponge series of papers based on J.B. Wilson, South coast of Australia Coll.

Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition, 1901-3, "Gauss"
Reported: Tetraxonia - Lendenfeld 1907
Hexactinellida - Schulze & Kirkpatrick 1910
Monaxonida & Keratosa - Hentschel 1914
Calcarea - Brøndsted 1931
Located: ZMH - "Most of the collection is at Hamburg. Hexacts are intact: but the Calcarea are missing" [Tendal 1985]
ZMB - extent to be established on completion of current cataloguing [Nobbe 1980; Wiedenmayer 1983]
ZSM - extent to be confirmed [Nobbe, 1980]
BMNH (pars)

Deutschen Tiefsee Expeditions, 1898-99, "Gazelle" & "Valdivia"
Reported: Hexactinellida - Schulze 1904
Tetraxonia - Lendenfeld 1906
Calcarea - Urban, 1909
Located: ZMB - "Most of the collection is in Berlin". Extent to be establised on completion of the current cataloguing" [Tendal 1985]
ZMH - "Part of the collection is in Hamburg" [Tendal 1985]
ZSM - "Part of the collection is in München" [Nobbe 1980]
BMNH (pars)
"part of the "Valdivia" is at Leipzig" [Wiedenmayer 1982]
MZS - "Part of Schulze's (1904) Hexactinellida" [Desqueyroux 1986]
NMS - (pars)?
Uberseemuseums Bremen - "Valdivia" Hexacts (pars) & "Valdivia" & "Gazelle" Tetraxonia (pars)
Catalogued: (pars) Knipper 1956

Deuxiéme Expedition Antarctique francaise, 1908-10, "Pourquoi Pas?"
Reported: Topsent 1916, 1917
Located: MNHN

Dickinson's Gulf of California Sponges
Reported: Dickinson 1945
Located: Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California. Report based on collections obtained by the Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions of "Velero III" off the coast of Mexico, America, South America and the Galapagos Islands in 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939 & 1940.

"Dijmphna"
see: Danish Arctic Expedition, 1882-83

"Discovery"
see: British North Polar Expedition, 1875
National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-4
"Discovery" Investigations, Antarctic, 1925-28

"Discovery" Investigations, Antarctic, 1925-28
Reported: Burton 1932
Located: BMNH
Investigations continued annually by the Discovery Committee, until the present day. The later material remains unidentified. The material collected between 1929 and 1937 is located at the BMNH. The material collected from 1937 onwards is located at the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Godalming, Surrey.

Duchassaing & Michelotti Caribbean Coll.
Reported: Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864
Located: Musee d'Istituto di Zoologia Sistematica dell'Universita di Torino, Italy
ZMA
Museo di Genova holds 4 syntypes [Tortonese 1962]
schizotypes from the Torino specimens are at:
BMNH
USNM
MNHN
(colour transparencies of many of the specimens are now available)
Catalogued: Entire collection has been catalogued by van Soest, et al 1983. The Amsterdam specimens have been re-described and figured by van Soest, 1978, 1980 & 1984

Expedition Antarctique francaise, 1903-5, "Francais"
Reported: Topsent 1907, 1908
Located: MNHN

Expedition Nord Atlantique, 1888, "Hirondelle"
Reported: Topsent 1890, 1892
Located: IOM

Ferrer Hernández Sponges
Reported: between 1912 and 1933
Located: "The Madrid Museum holds 112 specimens of 94 species identified by F.H., collected from Marin, Santander, Mahon, Mallorca and Malaga, and mostly described by him in his papers. Included are the following holotypes: Scutastra cantabrica, Siphonochalina balearica, Cantabrina erecta, C. erecta var palmata, Sphinctrella linaresi, Vosmaeropsis gardineri, Leucandra sulcata, L. riojai, and Corythophora ijimai.
Well preserved and accessible collections, recently catalogued (names not yet up-dated). F.H.'s systematically arranged file also exists.
Santander Museum also holds F.H. material, including type of Lissopocillon dendyi(?), but collections are at present inaccessible. I hope to investigate them in 1987." [Uriz 1986]

"Fish Hawk" Expedition West Indies-Porto Rico, 1899 (US Fish Commission)
Reported: Hexactinellida - Schulze 1899
Wilson 1902
Located: USNM

"Francais"
see: Expedition Antarctique francaise, 1903-5

"Galathea"
see: Danish Deep-Sea World-Wide Expedition, 1950-52

"Gauss"
see: Deutschen Sudpolar-Expedition, 1901-3

"Gazelle"
see: Deutschen Tiefsee Expeditions, 1898-99

Gist Gee's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: USNM

Grant's Sponges
Reported: in a series of papers between 1825-1827
Located: 16 microscopical slide preparations found at University College, London, in 1976.

J.E. Gray's Sponges
He described many of the "exotic" sponges which are in the BMNH collections in a series of short papers between 1850's and 1870's.

Great Barrier Reef Expedition, 1928-29
Reported: Burton 1934
Located: BMNH

Haeckel's Calcarea
Reported: Haeckel 1869, 1872
Located: PMJ "Only about 12 recognisable types have survived at Jena out of c.200." [Wiedenmayer 1983]
MCZ? - "some cotypes? - status needs confirmation." [Austin 1985]

Hamburg South-West Australian Expedition, 1905
Reported: Tetraxonida - Hentschel 1909, 1911
Calcarea - Row & Hozawa 1931
Located: ZMH "Mainly in Hamburg, but a part was lost during the war." [Tendal 1985]. Internal catalogue available for checking.
ZMB "Mainly Hentschel's schizotypes and slides." [Wiedenmayer 1983]
BMNH Row & Hozawa (pars)
Western Australian Museum, Perth - 3 Hentschel (1911) syntypes

Hancock's Clionids
Reported: Hancock 1849, 1867
Located: The Hancock Museum, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK
Catalogued: Rützler & Stone 1986

Hartlaub's Coll., 1898
see: Hentschel's Sponges

Hentschel's Sponges
Reported: Faunistic reports include:
Siliceous & Horny sponges of Aru & Kei Islands - Reported 1912
Located: NMS "Collection almost intact at Frankfurt, but there are no
slide preparations" [Nobbe 1980]
ZMH "Only part of the collection is at Hamburg". [Tendal 1985]
Siliceous & Horny sponges of the Arctic - reported 1929
Located: ZMB current cataloguing will establish how much material has survived of the collections studied by Hentschel for this work, i.e.
Römer & Schaudinn's Coll., 1898
Hartlaub's Coll., 1898
Kükenthal's Coll., 1889
ZMH ?
see: Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition, 1901-3, "Gauss"
Hamburg South-West Australian Expedition, 1905
Swedish Expedition, Spitzbergen, 1908

Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries Coll., 1902
Reported: Dendy 1905
Located: BMNH

Hernández
see: Ferrer Hernández Sponges

"Hirondelle"
see: Expedition Nord Atlantique, 1888

Hornell's Okhamandal Coll., 1905-6
Reported: Calcarea - Dendy 1915
Non-Calcarea - Dendy 1916
Located: BMNH

Hyatt's North American Sponges
Reported: Keratosa - 1875, 1877, 1878
Located: MCZ - transferred here when the Boston Society closed down; "maintained separately" [Austin 1985]

Icelandic Sponges at the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen
Reported: Burton 1959
Located: ZMC
BMNH (pars)

Die Internationale Polarforschung, Jan Mayen, 1882-83 (Osterreichisch-Ungarischen Nordpol-Expedition)
Reported: Marenzeller 1886
Located: Vienna? - to be confirmed
BMNH (pars)

Minna Jewell's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: material studied during her lifetime.
Located: USNM

George Johnston's British Sponges
Reported: Johnston 1842
Located: BMNH
The collection includes specimens sent to him by many of his contemporaries. "Some types in the Norman Coll." [Sherborn 1940]
Catalogued: Gray 1848

Kaminskaya's Black Sea Sponges
Reported: 1968
Located: ZIL

Keller's Red Sea Sponges
Reported: 1889, 1891
Located: ZMZ
ZMB it has been confirmed that part of the collection is in Berlin [Nobbe 1980; Wiedenmayer 1983]
BMNH (pars)

Kirk's New Zealand Sponges
Reported: 1894, 1895, 1896 & 1898
Located: Zoological Museum, Victoria University College, Wellington
Catalogued: Fell 1950

"Knight Errant" Faeroes Channel Expedition, 1880
Reported: Schulze 1882
Located: BMNH (pars)
Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh ? - to be confirmed

Koltun's Arctic & Pacific Sponges
Reported: 1959-1970
Located: ZIL

Kükenthal's Coll., 1889
see: Hentschel's Sponges

Lamarck Sponges
Reported: 1813, 1815, 1816 & 1836 (Redescribed by Topsent 1930, 1932 & 1933)
covers 2 faunistic areas:
(1) Australia, collected by Peron and Lesueur
(2) Caribbean (i.e. pre-Duchassaing & Michelotti)
Located: MNHN
BMNH (pars)
Caens ?

Lambe's North American Sponges
Reported: 9 papers published between 1893 & 1905, on Pacific and Atlantic coast fauna
Located: National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. "Several types missing" [Austin 1985]
Catalogued: Frank et al 1985. [Note warning about incorrect publication dates]

Leidy's Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: Academy of National Sciences of Philadelphia [Hartman 1983]
Catalogued: MSS catalogue prepared by Volkmer-Ribeiro 1985

Lendenfeld Sponges
Reported: Australian Keratosa - 1885, 1887, 1889
Australian Museum Catalogue sponges - 1888
Adriatic sponges -
Calcarea 1891
Hexaceratina 1892
Tetractinellida 1894
Clavulina 1896
Located: ZMB - "Considerable number of types have survived (wet, dry and good slides) particularly the Australian & Adriatic material, including species not represented in the AM or BMNH collections e.g. Druinella rotunda(holotype & slides)" [Wiedenmayer 1983]
AM. - includes Whitelegge's slide preps made from the BMNH set of Lendenfeld specimens.
BMNH
see: "Albatross" Pacific Expeditions
Deutschen Sudpolar-Expedition, 1901-3, "Gauss"
Deutschen Tiefsee Expeditions, 1898-99, "Gazelle" & "Valdivia"
Voeltzkow's Voyage to Madagascar & East Africa, 1889-95

"Lightning" Deep-Sea Dredging Expedition, NW Scotland, 1868
Reported: C.W. Thomson 1869
Located: BMNH (pars)

"Mabahiss"
see: John Murray Expedition, Indian Ocean, 1933-34

"Manihine" Gulf of Aqaba Coll., 1948-49
Burton 1952
Located: BMNH

Marshall's Bass Strait Sandy Sponges, 1880
Reported: 1880
Located: PMJ (pars)
ZMB (pars)

Sir Douglas Mawson
Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14

Merejkowsky's White Sea Sponges
Reported: 1878, 1879
Located: ZIL ( pars)

"Michael Sars" North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition, 1910
Reported: Arnesen 1920 (1932)
Located: Bergen Museum, Norway

Miklucho-Maclay's Sponges
Reported: 1870
Located: ZIL (pars)

Dr. Th. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition, 1914-16
Reported: Part I. New Zealand - Brøndsted 1923, 1924
Part II. New Zealand - Brøndsted 1926
Located: ZMC
BMNH (pars)

John Murray Expedition, Indian Ocean, 1933-34, "Mabahiss''
Reported: Burton 1959
Located: BMNH

National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-4, "Discovery"
Reported: Hexactinellida - Kirkpatrick 1907
Tetraxonida - Kirkpatrick 1908
Calcarea - Jenkin 1908
Located: Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh (pars)

New Zealand 'Marine Fauna' Sponges
Reported: Part 1 - Tetractinomorpha & Lithistida - Bergquist 1968
Part 2 - Axinellida & Halichondrida - Bergquist 1970
Part 3 - Haplosclerida & Nepheliospongida - Berquist & Warne 1980
Part 4 - Poecilosclerida - Bergquist & Froment 1987
Located: NMNZ
Catalogued: Dawson 1979

Canon A.M. Norman's Sponges
Reported: Includes fragments and slide preparations of many specimens obtained from his contemporaries both at home and abroad, as well as specimens from his British and Norwegian sponges that he described between 1868 and 1893. (see also: Burton, 1930 on Norman's Norwegian sponges (pars)).
Located: BMNH (pars)

Norwegian Expeditions to East-Greenland, 1930-32
Reported: Burton 1934
Located: Zoological Museum of the University of Oslo

Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition, 1876-78, "Vöringen"
Reported: Hansen 1885
Located: Bergen Museum, Norway

Österreichisch-Ungarischen Nordpol-Expedition
see: Die Internationale Polarforschung, Jan Mayen, 1882-83

Penney's Fresh Water Sponges
(including the material on which the Penney & Racek revision of 1968 is based)
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: USNM
AM - slide preparations only

The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leader-ship of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A.
see: "Sealark" Coll., Indian Ocean, 1905

Peron & Lesueur Sponges
see: Lamarck Sponges

Pharetronid Types
An almost complete set of types are present in the BMNH thanks to the generosity of the specialists.

Dr. L. Plate's Chile Coll., 1894-95
Reported: Calcarea - Breitfuss 1898
Siliceous & Horny - Thiele 1905
Located: ZMB
BMNH (pars)

"Porcupine" Deep-Sea Dredging Expeditions, Atlantic & Medit., 1869-1870
Reported: W. Thomson 1869
Carter 1873, 1874, 1876
Located: BMNH
"Bought by E.A. Smith from ?F.G. Jeffreys, but found he only had half; rest in the hands of J.T. Marshall and is believed to have passed to E.R. Sykes." [Sherborn 1940]

Potts Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: Academy of National Sciences of Philadelphia [Hartman 1983]
Catalogued: MSS catalogue prepared by Volkmer-Ribeiro 1985

"Pourquoi Pas?"
see-
Deuxiéme Expedition Antarctique francaise, 1908-10
"Pourquoi Pas?" Expedition, Greenland, 1926

"Pourquoi Pas?" Expedition, Greenland, 1926
Reported: Topsent 1927
Located: MNHN

Prince Albert I
see: Prince de Monaco Cruises

Prince de Monaco Cruises
Reported: North Atlantic - Topsent 1892
Azores - Topsent 1904
Atlantic & Medit. - Topsent 1927, 1928
Located: IOM

"Princesse Alice" Expeditions
Reported: Gibralter area, 1894-95 - Topsent 1895
Azores, 1895 - Topsent 1896
Northern Seas, 1898-99, 1906-07 - Topsent 1913
Located: IOM

"Proeven"
see: Swedish Arctic Expedition, 1875

Racek's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: material studied during his years in Australia including the Penney & Racek revision (1968).
Located: AM

Rezvoj's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: 1936
Located: ZIL

Römer & Schaudinn Coll., 1898
see: Hentschel's Sponges

"Rosaura" Atlantic Expedition, 1937-38
Reported: Burton 1954
Located: BMNH

Schmidt Sponges
Reported: Adriatic - 1862, 1864, 1866 (1868)
Algeria - 1868
Greenland - 1869
Atlantic - 1870
Mexico & Caribbean - 1879, 1880
Located: Specimens have become dispersed in museums throughout Europe and America. All holdings need to be catalogued to establish the extent of material which has survived, and to allow lectotype designations to proceed.
Graz, Steiermärkischen Landesmuseum Joanneum - on long-term loan (from 1985) to Faundez-Desqueyroux at Geneva for study & cataloguing
Catalogued: Heider 1894
BMNH (pars)
ZMB "a few Demosponge schizotypes included in Schulze Bequest" [Wiedenmayer 1983]
ZMC (pars)
Bergen Museum - "some Caribbean material" [Tendal 1983]
MNHN schizotypes from Algeria
MZS
see: "Blake" Expedition, Mexico & Caribbean
Deutschen Nordpolar Expedition, 1869-70, "Germania"

Schulze Bequest
Hexactinellida and some of his Demosponge types. Includes some Demosponge types of Schmidt, obtained from Graz. [Wiedenmayer 1983]
Located: ZMB - extent of material which has survived will be known on the completion of the current cataloguing
see: "Albatross" Pacific Expeditions, (US Fish Commission)
"Bache" Expedition, NW Atlantic (US Fish Commission)
"Bluelight" Expedition, Eastern Pacific (US Fish Commission)
"Challenger" Expedition, 1873-76
Deutschen Nordpolar Expedition, 1863 (?), ''Germania"
Deutschen Sudpolar-Expedition, 1901-3, "Gauss"
Deutschen Tiefsee Expeditions, 1898-99, "Gazelle" & "Valdivia"
"Fish Hawk" Expedition, West Indies-Porto Rico, 1899 (US Fish Commission)
"Investigator" Expedition, Indian Ocean, 1885-98
"Mocassin" Expedition, (US Fish Commission)

"Scotia"
see: Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4, "Scotia"
Reported: Antarctic - Topsent 1909, 1910, 1913
Atlantic (mainly off SW coast of Cape Colony, S.Africa) - Stephens 1915
Located: syntypes and all the holotypes except for Eumastia attenuata, Homoeodictyamicrochela& Esperiopsis scotiaewere found at The Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, when the collection was catalogued. A series of Stephen's paratypes are in the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin (some schizotypes from these specimens have been deposited in the BMNH)
Catalogued: Smaldon et al 1976

"Sealark" Coll., Indian Ocean, 1905
(or The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A.)
Reported: Calcarea - Dendy 1913
Hexactinellida - Dendy 1916
Homosclerophora & Astrotetraxonida - Dendy 1916
Sigmatotetraxonida - Dendy 1921
Located: BMNH

Semon's Expedition to Australia & Malayan Archipelago, 1893-94
Reported: Horny sponges - P. Schulz 1897, 1900
Siliceous sponges - Kieschnick 1898, 1900
Fresh water sponges - Weltner 1900
Located: PMJ "All Schulz's material is at Jena. Most of Kieschnick's material is there too." [Wiedenmayer 1983]
PMJ "and figured syntypes of Weltner's Ephydatia multidentata "
NMS (pars) [Nobbe 1980]
ZMB "some slides are in the Berlin collections" [Wiedenmayer 1983]
NMV "sets of slides" [Wiedenmayer 1985]
Museum of the Northern Territories, Darwin, Australia - "sets of slides" [Wiedenmayer 1985]

"Siboga" Expedition, Dutch East Indies, 1899-1900
Reported: Placospongia - Vosmaer & Vernhout 1902
Spirastrella - Vosmaer 1911
Hexactinellida - Ijima 1927
Calcarea - Burton 1930
[Xenophyophoria - Schulze 1906; established as Protozoan by Tendal
1972]
Located: ZMA - about 3, 000 identified specimens in Amsterdam, including the Hexactinellida returned from Tokyo
BMNH (pars)

Frank Smith's Fresh Water Sponges
Reported: 5 papers published between 1916 & 1930, on the North American fauna
Located: USNM

Soviet Antarctic Expedition, 1955-1958, "Ob"
Reported: Koltun 1964
Located: ZIL

Jane Stephen's Sponges
Partly collected by herself and partly collected by various Irish Dept. of Agriculture, Royal Irish Academy & Royal Dublin Society dredging cruises off the western coast of Ireland.
Reported: Clare Island Survey - 1912
off-shore dredgings - 1915, 1917, 1921
Located: National Museum of Ireland, Dublin
BMNH (pars)
Catalogued: O'Riordan & O'Connor 1985
See: Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4, "Scotia"

Swartschewsky's White Sea Sponges
Reported: 1906
Located: ZIL

Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1901-3, "Antarctica"
Reported: Burton 1934
Located: ZRS
BMNH (pars)

Swedish Arctic Expedition, 1875, "Proeven"
Reported: Fristedt 1887
Located: ZRS

Swedish Arctic Expedition, 1876, "Ymer"
Reported: Fristedt 1887
Located: ZRS

Swedish Arctic Expedition, 1878-80, "Vega"
Reported: Fristedt 1887
Located: ZRS
BMNH (pars)

Swedish Expedition, Greenland, 1883
Reported: Fristedt 1887
Located: ZRS

Swedish Expedition, Spitzbergen, 1872-73
Reported: Fristedt 1887
Located: ZRS
BMNH (pars)

Swedish Expedition, Spitzbergen, 1908
Reported: Hentschel 1916
Located: ZMH
ZMB (pars)

Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition, 1947-49, "Albatross"
Reported: Tendal 1973
Located: Natural History Museum, Göteborg

"Talisman" Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition, 1883
Reported: Topsent 1904
Located: MNHN

"Terra Nova"
see: British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13

Thiele's Pacific Sponges
Reported:Located: Catalogued:
Japan - 1898 ZMB - MZS
Celebes - "1899 - " ZMB - Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel.Forcart 1966
Ternate - "1900, 1903" NMS - ZMB "some schizotypes & slides" [Wiedenmayer 1983]
see: Dr. L. Plate's Chile Coll., 1894-95

Topsent Sponges
Located: Specimens are deposited in several French museums, primarily Paris and Strasbourg, and also Monaco.

MNHN - holds a complete representative set of slides. Specimens include sponges from the Atlantic coasts of France and also: Mer Rouge (1891, 1906), Algérie (1901, 1938), Cap-Vert Hexact. (1904) and San Thomé (1918).
Lyon - Campagne du "Caudan" (1896)
Genève - Baie d'Amboine (1897) (redescribed Faundez-Desqueyroux 1981)
Dinard - Rance (1932)

see: Deuxiéme Expedition, Antarctique francaise, 1908-10, "Pourquoi Pas?"
Expedition Antarctique belge, 1897-99, "Belgica"
Expedition Antarctique francaise, 1903-5, "Francais"
Expedition Nord Atlantique, 1888, "Hirondelle"
"Pourquoi Pas?" Expedition, Greenland, 1926
Prince de Monaco Cruises
"Princesse Alice" Expeditions
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4, "Scotia"
"Talisman" Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition, 1883
"Le Travailleur" Deep-Sea Dredgings, Atlantic & Medit., 1880, 1881, 1882

Transit of Venus Expedition, Kerguelen Land & Rodrigues, 1874-75
Reported: Carter 1879
Located: BMNH

"Le Travailleur" Deep-Sea Dredgings, Atlantic & Medit., 1880, 1881, 1882
Reported: Topsent 1904
Located: MNHN

"Triton" Faeroes Channel Expedition, 1882
Reported: ?
Located: BMNH (pars)

University of Cape Town Ecological Survey
An on-going survey started by T.A. Stephenson as an intertidal survey in 1932, and continued by J.A. Day from 1945. Expanded to include benthic samplings of the continental shelf. The main area surveyed is the Cape, but it also includes Tristan da Cunha.
Reported: Stephenson's Coll.- Burton 1933, 1936
Day's Coll. -
Poecilosclerides - Lévi 1963
Tetractinellides - Lévi 1967
Calcarea- Borojevic 1967
Located: University of Cape Town?
MNHN (pars)
BMNH (pars)

US Fish Commission/Survey
see: "Albatross", "Bache", "Blake", "Bluelight", "Fish Hawk" and "Mocassin" Expeditions.

"Valdivia"
see: Deutschen Tiefsee Expedition, 1898-99

"Valorous"
see: British North Polar Expedition, 1875

"Vega"
see: Swedish Arctic Expedition, 1878-80

"Veloro"
see: Dickinson's Gulf of California Sponges

"Vityaz" Pacific Expeditions, 1949-1969
Reported: Koltun 1970
Located: ZIL

Voeltzkow's Vovage to Madagascar & East Africa, 1889-95
Reported: Zanzibar sponges - Lendenfeld 1897
Tetractinellida - Basraug 1913
Located: ZMB

Volkmer-Ribeiro's Fresh Water Sponges
Neotropical material currently being studied and published
Located: Fundaçao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

"Vöringen"
see: Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition, 1876-78

Vosmaer's Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: RNHL - the collection is almost intact at Leiden
see: "Siboga" Expedition, Dutch East Indies, 1899-1900
"Willem Barents" Expedition, Arctic, 1880-81

Cawne Warren's Acapulco Collection
see: "Argo" Expedition, West Indies, 1876-77

Weltner's Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: ZMB
Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel - 3 fresh water types reported 1901.
Catalogued: Forcart 1966
see: Semon's ExpedUse of uninitialized value in concatenation (.) or string at E:\listplex\SYSTEM\SCRIPTS\filearea.cgi line 451, line 1627. ition to Australia & Malayan Archipelago, 1893-94

"Willem Barents" Expedition, Arctic, 1880-81
Reported: Vosmaer 1885
Located: ZMA
BMNH (pars)

H.V. Wilson's Sponges
Reported: material studied during his lifetime
Located: USNM - Beaufort (N.C.) Harbor, George & Wilson (1919) - "His entire personal microscopic slide collection was found at the Zoological Department at University of North Carolina"; to be deposited in USNM [Rützler 1979]
see: "Albatross" Pacific Expeditions (US Fish Commission)
"Fish Hawk" Expedition, West Indies - Porto Rico, 1899 (US Fish Commission)

J.B. Wilson, South Coast of Australia Coll., (1884-86, 1888-97)
Reported: Keratosa - Carter 1885
'Demosponges' - Carter 1885, 1886
Calcarea & Hexactinellida - Carter 1886
Supplements - Carter 1886
Dendy's Victorian Sponge series of papers:
Homocoela - Dendy 1891
Heterocoela - Dendy 1892
Synute pulchella- Dendy 1892
Leucosolenia uteoides- Dendy 1893
Non-Calcarea - Dendy 1895, 1896, 1897
Collosclerophora arenacea- Dendy 1916
Located: (a) all Carter's material deposited in BMNH
(b) Dendy's material - primary type series is at NMV. (Specimens were originally deposited at the Biology School, Melbourne University, but have since been transferred to NMV). Incomplete secondary type series is at BMNH, with a fully representative slide collection. All species are represented except for Esperella raraand Collosclerophora arenacea.
Catalogued: (Dendy's Victorian material): Ayling et al 1982

"Ymer"
see: Swedish Arctic Expedition, 1876


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