|Alias||Email aliases are often used to create replacements for long or difficult-to-remember email addresses. They are also useful for creating generic email addresses such as firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com.|
|Apache||Apache is an open-source application and is the most common web server (or HTTP server) software on the Internet.|
A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page to provide interactive features to web applications that cannot be provided by HTML
|Archive||A repository of messages sent to a JISCMail list. They are usually stored by month, but can also be stored weekly or yearly. Archives can be accessed from the web or by email.|
|ASCII||ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), or 'plain text format', files consist of text (letters, numbers and punctuation) and are free from any special formatting such as bold or italics etc.|
|Attachments||Attachments are documents, which are sent over the Internet as part of an email message.|
|Bandwidth||How much data you can send through an Internet connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second.|
|Bits and Bytes||A bit is the smallest piece of information that a computer deals with - either a zero or a one. The word bit comes from Binary digIT. Bytes are a collection of bits - usually seven-bit and eight-bit bytes.|
A Bounce (or bounce-back) is an informative email received in response to a email that couldn't be delivered to its recipient, usually because the recipient's email address no longer exists.
Generally refers to connections to the Internet with much greater bandwidth than you can get with a modem.
|Browser||A program which allows your computer to download and display documents from the World Wide Web. Popular browsers include Internet Explorer, Firefox,Chrome and Opera.|
|CataList||CataList is a database of 'public' LISTSERV lists worldwide. JISCMail lists do not appear on CataList.|
|CC||Copying an email to someone else.|
|CGI||A CGI (Common Gateway Interface) program defines a standard way of taking data from a web page returning its output. For example, LISTSERV's web interface is a CGI program called 'webadmin'.|
|Closed list||A list configured so as to prevent new users from joining it.|
|Command||In the context of JISCMail, a command is an instruction sent by email to LISTSERV@jiscmail.ac.uk. Commands provide an alternative to using the web.|
|Cookie||A cookie is a small file stored by your web browser. Cookies are very useful when using LISTSERV, as your login details will be stored, preventing you having to login every time you use LISTSERV.|
|Cross-posting||Sending a message to more than one list at the same time. This is not a recommended practice on JISCMail as your message may get mistaken for spam|
CSS stands for Cascaded Style Sheet. They are a set of rules for the style of a web-page.
For more information on using CSS and a tutorial, please visit www.w3schools.com/CSS/
|Depot||The Depot is a JISC-funded service which enables all UK academics to share in the benefits of open access exposure for their research outputs. The Depot offers an automatic re-direct service, nicknamed UK Repository Junction, to ensure that users who have an existing Institutional Repository (IR) are directed to that local service.|
|Digest||The Digest option is where you choose to receive all the messages sent to the list during a day (or week, depending on the list configuration), in one single larger message.|
|Discussion Room||A JISCMail 'Tool' useful for conducting virtual discussions in real time with other members of your list. The link to use it is found on your list homepage at www.jiscmail.ac.uk/LISTNAME|
|DNS||DNS (Domain Name Server) is a computer which translates domain names into numerical IP addresses and locates them on the Internet.|
|Domain||There are various parts to a domain name and the last part tells you what kind of site it is. For example, '.com' stands for commercial and '.uk' stands for United Kingdom. You also have sub-domains, such as 'ac.uk' which stands for academic community, United Kingdom. Domains are used in both URLs and email addresses.|
|Down||In computing terms, this means 'not working' or 'not in operation'.|
|Editor||JISCMail lists can be configured so that mail is sent to an Editor before being distributed to the list. He can edit the messages if necessary, or simply approve them.|
|Electronic Mail messages sent from one person to another via the internet.|
|Email address||A unique address that identifies which mailbox to deliver mail to.|
|Email Client||This is the front-end computer program used to read your mail. Popular clients include Microsoft Outlook, Lotus Notes, Mozilla Thunderbird etc.|
|Filter||You can set up your email client so that arriving messages are separated into different folders depending on the subject, the address they are from.|
|Firewall||A security system designed to restrict access to computers on a network from the outside world/internet.|
|Gif||A compressed image - used extensively on the internet|
|Header||Part of the email message that precedes the body of the message and contains, among other things, the message originator, date and time.|
|HEFC||Higher Education Funding Council|
|HEFCE||Higher Education Funding Council for England|
|HEI||Higher Education Institution|
|Home Page||The main web page for a business, organisation, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. www.jiscmail.ac.uk|
|Hostname||The name of a computer|
|HTML||HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the primary language used to write web pages.|
|HTTP||Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the way HTML encoded documents are transferrred between web servers and browsers.|
Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.
|I||| top ||
|IMAP||IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is another Internet email standard which allows email programs to access messages on a remote machine as if they were local, in other words, all messages stay on the remote machine and are not downloaded to the user's desktop. Useful for people who want to read their email from lots of different computers.|
|Internet||A global system of inter-connected networks that carries an array of information resources and services, such as the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure supporting email|
|IP address||Internet Protocol (IP) is a unique address used by every computer that is directly connected to the internet. The domain names found in URLs and email address all translate into these numbers.|
|ISP||An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an institution or company that provides access to the Internet in some form.|
|IT (Information Technology)||
A very general term referring to the entire field of Information Technology - anything from computer hardware, to programming, to network management.
|JANET||The Joint Academic NETwork (JANET) UK academic and research network that links UK universities, colleges and research organisations to the Internet.|
|JISC||Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) is the committee which funds JISCMail.|
|Join||Become a member of a JISCMail list.|
|JPEG||Compressed still images and video|
|List||A mailing list is a discussion group whose messages are distributed by email.|
|LISTSERV||The mailing list software used by JISCMail to manage the lists and their content.|
|Login||In LISTSERV terms, a process of authorisation where you type in your email address and password.|
|LSMTP||The email delivery software (or MTA) used by JISCMail.|
|Mailbase||The email discussion list service to which JISCMail is the successor.|
|Mailbox||The place on your mail server where your email is stored.|
This is a computer that transfers mail between different mail systems. It works out where important bits of the message such as the subject, author and recipient are, and translates it into the format required by the other system.
|Mail loop||A mail loop is an automatic and ongoing repetition of emails between two mail servers, which may result in you or a mailing list receiving the same message repeatedly. They are usually caused by poorly configured mail systems, but should always be reported to the JISCMail Helpline.|
|Mail Server||The machine at your site that handles incoming and outgoing email and that holds your mailbox.|
|Member||A member, or subscriber, is someone who is subscribed to a mailing list.|
|Message ID||This is an identifier for an email message which is supposed to be unique across time and space. It is up to the originating email program how it is generated.|
A specific kind of HTML tag that contains information not normally displayed to the user. Meta tags contan information about the web page itself, typically to include information for search engines to help them better categorize a page.
|MIME||MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is the standard for attaching non-text files such as graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc to standard email messages. An email program is said to be MIME compliant if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard.|
|MLM||Mailing List Manager (MLM) is a program which manages email lists. LISTSERV is an MLM.|
|Moderator||Someone on a 'Moderated' or 'Edited' list who reads all the messages sent to the list address and approves them for distribution to members.|
|Netiquette||Netiquette (Network Etiquette) is an informal code of manners which should govern your behaviour on the Internet. JISCMail's Guidelines on Ettiquette can be found at http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/help/policy/etiquette.htm|
|Network||Any connection of two or more computers made for the purpose of sharing resources.|
|Online||The state of being connected to the Internet.|
|Open list||An open list is publicly accessible. Archives of messages are viewable by non-members via the list's homepage, and anyone may join. The list is displayed on our A-Z and Catagory Pages.|
|Out of Office Assistant||Out of Office - sometimes shortened to 'OOO' - is a program
which sends an automatic reply to all the messages you
receive, saying something like 'I am on holiday
and will not be reading my email for another three
weeks'. Such messages are annoying when they
are sent to JISCMail lists, and they are a frequent cause
of mail loops. We recommend that you set your subscription to the 'Nomail' option while you are away from the office, as this suspends mail temporarily from your lists. To do this send the following command to listserv@JISCMail.ac.uk
set * nomail
and when you return, send:
set * mail
Go to the homepage of your list. Choose 'Join or Leave LISTNAME' and tick /untick the 'NOMAIL' checkbox within your subscription options.
A list owner may also add text to their 'Content Filter' template so that OOO messages to the list are rejected. See http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/help/owners/templates.htm for details of how to do this.
|Owner||An Owner (or List Owner) is someone who looks after and manages a JISCMail list.|
|A PDF (Printable Document Format) is a type of file (usually with the extension .pdf) that has become a standard on the web for distributing documents. Documents can contain extensive formatting and images all in one compressed file. Adobe Acrobat reader is required, available for most platforms, and is free to download and use.|
|Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language ) is a programming language that is widely used for both very simple, small tasks and for very large complex applications.
It can be used by people with little or no formal programming training, and provides many sophisticated features.
|PGP||PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) encryption is a program that is used for signing, encrypting and decrypting e-mails to increase the security of communications.|
|Phishing||Creating a replica of an existing web page/site to fool a user into submitting personal, financial, or password data.|
POP (Post Office Protocol) refers to a way that e-mail client software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain an account from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail.
|Postmaster||The person responsible for taking care of email services,
answering questions and complaints at a particular site.
If you're attempting to contact someone at a given site, try addressing it to firstname.lastname@example.org.
|Protocol||A rule that says how computers should communicate and exchange information.|
A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the 'real' Server that a Client is trying to use. Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks
|Public Key Encryption||Everyone using this system has two keys, a public key (available to the public) and a private key (to be kept secret). If Person A wants to send Person B a document, Person A encodes it using person B's 'public key.' Once it's been encoded, only Person B's 'private key' can decode it.|
|Queue||In computing terms, a stack of resources waiting to be processed. For example, email messages can be queued due to issues on the recipient's server..|
|Quiet Owner||A secondary owner of a list with several owners, who does not receive the admin and error messages.|
|Quoting||Including text from a previous message when replying by email.|
|Remote||Used to refer to a computer or site that is somewhere else.|
|RSC||A JISC Regional Support Centre - see http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/services/as_rsc/rsc_home/rscs_contact.aspx|
|RSS||RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is used to send info on frequently updated items. For details of how to access JISCMail lists via RSS see http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/news/index.htm|
|RTF||Word-processed documents can beconverted to RTF (Rich Text Format). This converts formatting to instructions that other compatible applications can read and interpret. RTF files may only contain plain text.|
|Server||A computer that serves or handles data that other computers request or send. For example, you are viewing this page because your computer requested it from the JISCMail web server.|
|Session||In the context of LISTSERV, when you login to the web interface LISTSERV creates a session cookie which lasts for the time specified within your 'Preferences'. This can range from 30 minutes to 'No Expiration'.|
|Shibboleth||Shibboleth is a standards based, open source, cross organisational Single Sign On solution. See http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/help/policy/shibmode.htm for further details.|
|Signature||A small file or text that can appear at the end of every email message you send. Normally includes personal details such as your name, email address and work address. Properly formed signatures should always be preceded with a '--'.|
|SMTP||(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) An international standard, used to transfer email between computers. It was designed for sending printable text only.|
Postings within the JISCMail archives contain a bookmark/share button which links to a variety of social bookmarking/sharing sites.
|Spam||Any email that no-one wants, especially commercial messages which are sent to a mass audience. JISCMail is virtually Spam free.|
|Spoofing||The act of forging an email so that it appears to have come from someone else. Some common types of virus effectively spoof email since they scour an infected PC for email addresses which they then use to send out copies of themselves.|
|Spyware||A somewhat vague term generally referring to software that is secretly installed on a users computer and that monitors use of the computer in some way without the users' knowledge or consent.
Spyware is usually installed without a users' knowledge as part of the installation of other software, especially software such as music sharing software obtained via download.
|SQL||SQL (Structured Query Language) is the most widely used language for relational databases.|
|Sub-list||Some JISCMail lists are organised into families or groups within a subject area. The sub-list is any list in such a group.|
|Subscribe||Join or become a member of a mailing list.|
|Super-list||The super-list is a co-ordinating list, or the head of a family of related lists. Any message sent to the super-list will reach all the lists which belong to that family or group.|
|TCP/IP||TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) is the basic language, or set of rules, which computers on the Internet use to talk to each other.|
|Thread||A series of messages on a given topic. One person sends a message, and other people reply to it or comment on it.|
|Transaction Report||When you send a command to JISCMail, LISTSERV will send you a transaction report telling you whether the command was successful and what action was taken.|
|Twitter is a microblogging service - the publishing of short messages via text, images or video. Messages are called 'tweets'.
Follow our RSS feed at http://www.twitter.com/jiscmailhelp
|URL||(Uniform Resource Locator) Every file and page on the web has a unique address, called a URL, which looks like this: http://www.JISCMail.ac.uk/help/using/glossary.htm|
|Virus||A program, hidden inside another program, which is designed to infect and sometimes damage other programs and files on your computer. It is usually distributed via an attachment to an email.|
|Web-admin||The LISTSERV list management page.|
|Web interface||In the context of JISCMail, refers to the LISTSERV web interface. Whenever you view a list's archives, or manage your list you are using the LISTSERV web interface.|
|Webmaster||The person in charge of the administration of a website.|
|Worm||Worms propagate themselves over a network or the internet and can cause servers and networks to become overloaded. A common type of worm attaches itself to an email and when the attachment is opened, then tries to send a copy of itself to everyone in the users address book.|